How can democracy best be pursued and promoted in the existing global system? In this article, I propose a novel suggestion: democratization should occur at the level of international regime complexity. Because each issue-area of world politics is distinct, we require tailor-made (as opposed to one-size-fits-all) responses to the global democratic deficit. I conceptualize global democracy as an ongoing process of democratization in which a set of core normative values are more or less satisfied. I explicate equal participation, accountability, and institutional revisability as those key standards. I argue that the democratization of regime complexes should occur across two distinct planes: (1) the realm of multilateral negotiations; and (2) institutional forms of democratic experimentalism between rule-makers and rule-takers. I evaluate and defend the potential of this argument by analyzing the intellectual property rights regime complex. Because intellectual property rights represent a 'tough case' for global democrats, we should be optimistic about the democratization of alternative regime complexes. © The Author(s) 2013.
Bibliographical noteCited By :6
Export Date: 19 September 2018
Correspondence Address: Kuyper, J. W.; Department of Political Science, Stockholm University, House F, Plan 5, Universitetsvägen 10, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden; email: email@example.com
Funding details: PEI, Princeton Environmental Institute, Princeton University
Funding text: Jonathan Kuyper is a postdoctoral researcher at Stockholm University, Sweden as part of the Transdemos and Transaccess research projects (headed by Professor Jonas Tallberg). He completed his PhD at the Australian National University in 2012, during which time he was a visiting student at the European University Institute and Princeton University. He has been granted multiple awards and scholarships including the AEUIFA and an Australian government Endeavour Award. His work has been published in Public Reason, Journal of Public Deliberation , and other outlets.
References: Abbott, K.W., Engaging the public and the private in global sustainability governance (2012) International Affairs, 88 (3), pp. 543-564; Alter, K.J., Meunier, S., The politics of international regime complexity (2009) Perspectives on Politics, 7 (1), pp. 13-24; Archibugi, D., (2008) The Global Commonwealth of Citizens: Toward Cosmopolitan Democracy, , Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; Archibugi, D., Koenig-Archibugi, M., Marchetti, R., (2012) Global Democracy: Normative and Empirical Perspectives, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Benkler, Y., Nissenbaum, H., Commons-based peer production and virtue (2006) Journal of Political Philosophy, 14 (4), pp. 394-419; Betts, A., Institutional proliferation and the global refugee regime (2009) Perspective on Politics, 7 (1), pp. 53-58; Bexell, M., Tallberg, J., Uhlin, A., Democracy in global governance: The promise and pitfalls of transnational actors (2010) Global Governance, 16 (1), pp. 81-101; Biermann, F., Pattberg, P., van Asselt, H., The fragmentation of global governance architectures: A framework for analysis (2009) Global Environmental Politics, 9 (4), pp. 14-40; Black, J., Constructing and contesting legitimacy and accountability in polycentric regulatory regimes (2008) Regulation & Governance, 2 (2), pp. 137-164; Bohman, J., International regimes and democratic governance: Political equality and influence in global institutions (1999) Ethics and International Affairs, 75 (3), pp. 499-513; Bohman, J., (2007) Democracy across Borders: From Dêmos to Dêmoi, , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; Braithwaite, J., Drahos, P., (2000) Global Business Regulation, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Brassett, J., Richardson, B., Smith, W., Private experiments in global governance: Primary commodity roundtables and the politics of deliberation (2012) International Theory, 4 (3), pp. 367-399; Brown, G.W., Bringing the state back into cosmopolitanism: The idea of responsible states (2011) Political Studies Review, 9 (1), pp. 53-66; Buchanan, A., Keohane, R.O., The legitimacy of global governance institutions (2006) Ethics & International Affairs, 20 (4), pp. 405-438; Buscaglia, E., Guerrero-Cusumano, J.-L., Quantitative analysis of counterfeiting activities in developing countries in the pre-GATT period (1995) Jurimetrics Journal, 35 (2), pp. 221-241; Busch, M.L., Overlapping institutions, forum shopping, and dispute settlement in international trade (2007) International Organization, 61 (4), pp. 735-761; Cabrera, L., (2004) Political Theory of Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Case for the World State, , London: Routledge; Cabrera, L., (2010) The Practice of Global Citizenship, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Carothers, T., (2008) Is a League of Democracies a Good Idea?, , Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; Cohen, J., Sabel, C.F., Global democracy? (2005) NYU Journal of International Law and Politics, 37 (4), pp. 763-797; Cooper, S., Hawkins, D.G., Jacoby, W., Yielding sovereignty to international institutions: Bringing system structure back in (2008) International Studies Review, 10 (3), pp. 501-524; Davis, C.L., Overlapping institutions in trade policy (2009) Perspective on Politics, 7 (1), pp. 25-31; de Búrca, G., Developing democracy beyond the state (2008) Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 46 (2), pp. 101-158; de Búrca, G., Keohane, R.O., Sabel, C., New modes of pluralist global governance (2013) NYU Journal of International Law and Politics; de Wilde, P., Zürn, M., Can the politicization of European integration be reversed? (2012) Journal of Common Market Studies, 50, pp. 137-153; Dewey, J., (1996) The Collected Works of John Dewey: The Electronic Edition, , Hickman LA, ed.;, Charlottesville, VA: Intelex Corporation; Dingwerth, K., The democratic legitimacy of public-private rule making: What can we learn from the World Commission on Dams (2005) Global Governance, 11 (1), pp. 65-83; Dorf, M.C., Sabel, C.F., A constitution of democratic experimentalism (1998) Columbia Law Review, 98 (2), pp. 267-473; Doyle, M., Dialectics of a global constitution: The struggle over the UN Charter (2012) European Journal of International Relations, 18 (4), pp. 601-624; Drezner, D., The power and peril of international regime complexity (2009) Perspectives on Politics, 7 (1), pp. 65-70; Dryzek, J.S., (2000) Deliberative Democracy and Beyond: Liberals, Critics, Contestation, , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Dryzek, J.S., (2006) Deliberative Global Politics: Discourse and Democracy in a Divided World, , Cambridge: Polity Press; Dryzek, J.S., Two paths to global democracy (2008) Ethical Perspectives, 15 (4), pp. 469-486; Dryzek, J.S., Democratization as deliberative capacity building (2009) Comparative Political Studies, 42 (11), pp. 1379-1402; Dryzek, J.S., (2010) Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance, , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Dryzek, J.S., Global civil society: The progress of post-Westphalian politics (2012) Annual Review of Political Science, 15, pp. 101-119; Dryzek, J.S., Stevenson, H., Global democracy and earth system governance (2011) Ecological Economics, 70 (11), pp. 1865-1874; Dunoff, J., Public participation in the trade regime: Of litigation frustration, agitation and legitimation (2004) Rutgers Law Review, 56 (4), pp. 961-970; Dunoff, J., Trachtman, J., (2009) Ruling the World? Constitutionalism, International Law, and Global Governance, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Eckstein, H., (1975) Handbook of Political Science: Strategies of Inquiry, pp. 79-138. , Greenstein FIPolsby WI, ed.;, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley; Erman, E., In search of democratic agency in deliberative governance European Journal of International Relations; Falk, R., (1975) A Study of Future Worlds, , New York: The Free Press; Falk, R., Strauss, A., Toward global parliament (2001) Foreign Affairs, 80 (1), pp. 212-220; Forst, R., (2007) Das Recht Auf Rechtfertigung. Elemente Einer Konstruktivistischen Theorie Der Gerechtigkeit, , Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp; Gale, F., Cave 'Cave! Hic dragones': A neo-Gramscian deconstruction and reconstruction of international regime theory (1998) Review of International Political Economy, 5 (2), pp. 252-283; Gallie, W.B., Essentially contested concepts (1956) Proceedings of the Aristotlean Society, 56, pp. 167-198; Goodhart, M., Democratic accountability in world politics: Norms, not agents (2011) Journal of Politics, 73 (1), pp. 45-60; Goodin, R.E., (2003) Reflective Democracy, , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Goodin, R.E., Global democracy: In the beginning (2010) International Theory, 2 (2), pp. 175-209; Gould, C., (2004) Globalizing Democracy and Human Rights, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Grant, R., Keohane, R.O., Accountability and abuses of power in world politics (2005) American Political Science Review, 99 (1), pp. 29-43; Habermas, J., (1984) Theory of Communicative Action, , Boston, MA: Beacon Press; Habermas, J., (1996) Between Facts and Norms, , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; Habermas, J., (2001) The Post-National Constellation, , Pensky M., ed.;, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; Hafner-Burton, E.M., The power politics of regime complexity: Human rights trade conditionality in Europe (2009) Perspective on Politics, 7 (1), pp. 33-37; Hawkins, D.G., Lake, D.A., Nielson, D.L., (2006) Delegation and Agency in International Organizations, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Held, D., (1995) Democracy and the Global Order, , Cambridge: Polity Press; Held, D., (2006) Models of Democracy, , 3rd edn.Cambridge: Polity Press; Held, D., Koenig-Archibugi, M., (2004) Global Governance and Public Accountability, , Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; Helfer, L.R., Regime shifting: The TRIPs agreement and new dynamics of international intellectual property lawmaking (2004) Yale Journal of International Law, 29, pp. 1-83; Helfer, L.R., Regime shifting in the international intellectual property system (2009) Perspectives on Politics, 7 (1), pp. 39-44; Helleiner, E., Pagliari, S., The end of an era in financial regulation? A postcrisis research agenda (2011) International Organization, 65 (1), pp. 169-200; Heywood, M., South Africa's Treatment for Access Campaign: Combining law and social mobilization to realize the right to health (2009) Journal of Human Rights Practice, 1 (1), pp. 14-36; Hix, S., The study of the European Union II: The 'new governance' agenda and its rival (1998) Journal of European Public Policy, 5 (1), pp. 38-65; (2012) Homepage, , http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2012/09/10/participatory-budgeting-an-experience-in-good-governance, ICT4Gov, Available at, (accessed 28 May 2013); Johnson, T., Institutional design and bureaucrats' impact on political control (2013) Journal of Politics, 75 (1), pp. 183-197; Johnson, T., Urpelainen, J., A strategic theory of regime integration and separation (2012) International Organization, 66 (4), pp. 645-677; Kapczynski, A., The access to knowledge mobilization and the new politics of intellectual property (2008) Yale Law Journal, 117, pp. 804-884; Keohane, R.O., (1984) After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy, , Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; Keohane, R.O., Victor, D.G., The regime complex for climate change (2011) Perspectives on Politics, 9 (1), pp. 7-23; Keohane, R.O., Macedo, S., Moravcsik, A., Democracy-enhancing multilateralism (2009) International Organization, 63 (1), pp. 1-31; Kingsbury, B., Krisch, N., Stewart, R., The emergence of global administrative law (2005) Law and Contemporary Problems, 68 (3), pp. 15-61; Koenig-Archibugi, M., Macdonald, K., Accountability-by-proxy in transnational non-state governance Governance; Koremenos, B., Lipson, C., Snidal, D., The rational design of international institutions (2001) International Organization, 55 (4), pp. 761-799; Krasner, S.D., (1983) International Regimes, , Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press; Krisch, N., (2010) Beyond Constitutionalism: The Pluralist Structure of Postnational Law, , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Lamy, P., Global governance: From theory to practice (2012) Journal of International Economic Law, 15 (3), pp. 721-728; Lamy, P., The WTO in global governance: Solid? Liquid? (2013) Gaseous?Global Policy, online first, , http://www.globalpolicyjournal.com/blog/02/04/2013/wto-global-governance-solid-liquid-gaseous, available at, (accessed 29 May 2013); Leebron, D., Symposium: The boundaries of the WTO: Linkages (2002) American Journal of International Law, 96 (1), pp. 5-27; Lemley, M.A., Intellectual property rights and standard-setting organizations (2002) California Law Review, 90 (6), pp. 1889-1981; Levy, M.A., Young, O.R., Zürn, M., The study of international regimes (1995) European Journal of International Relations, 1 (3), pp. 267-330; Lobel, O., The renew deal: The fall of regulation and the rise of governance in contemporary legal thought (2004) Minnesota Law Review, 89 (2), pp. 342-470; Macdonald, K., Macdonald, T., Democracy in a pluralist global order: Corporate power and stakeholder representation (2010) Ethics & International Affairs, 24 (1), pp. 19-43; Macdonald, T., (2008) Global Stakeholder Democracy, , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Macdonald, T., Ronzoni, M., Introduction: The idea of global political justice (2012) Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 15 (5), pp. 521-533; Marchetti, R., (2008) Global Democracy: For and Against - Ethical Theory, Institutional Design, and Social Struggles, , Abingdon: Routledge; Matthews, D., The role of international NGOs in the intellectual property policy-making and norm-setting activities of multilateral institutions (2007) Chicago-Kent Law Review, 82 (3), pp. 1369-1387; May, C., The World Intellectual Property Organization and the development agenda (2007) Global Governance, 13 (2), pp. 161-170; May, J.D., Defining democracy: A bid for coherence and consensus (1978) Political Studies, 26 (1), pp. 1-14; Miller, D., Democracy's domain (2009) Philosophy and Public Affairs, 37 (3), pp. 201-228; Mitzen, J., Reading Habermas in anarchy: Multilateral diplomacy and global public spheres (2005) American Political Science Review, 99 (3), pp. 401-417; Moravcsik, A., Is there a 'democratic deficit' in world politics? A framework for analysis (2004) Government and Opposition, 39 (2), pp. 336-363; Müller, H., Arguing, bargaining, and all that: Communicative action, rationalist theory, and the logic of appropriateness in International Relations (2004) European Journal of International Relations, 10 (3), pp. 395-435; Muzaka, V., Linkages, contests and overlaps in the global intellectual property rights regime (2010) European Journal of International Relations, 17 (4), pp. 755-776; Orsini, A., Morin, J.-F., Young, O., Regime Complexes: A boom, bust, or buzz for global governance? (2013) Global Governance, 19 (2), pp. 27-39; Overdevest, C., Zeitlin, J., Assembling an experimentalist regime: Transnational governance interactions in the forest sector (2012) Regulation and Governance; Patomäki, H., Towards global political parties (2011) Ethics & Global Politics, 4 (2), pp. 81-102; Pettit, P., (2012) Prioritizing justice and democracy, , http://www.normativeorders.net/en/events/frankfurt-lectures/1121-frankfurt-lecture-vi-philip-pettit, Available at, (accessed 15 February 2013); Pogge, T.W., (2002) World Poverty and Human Rights, , Cambridge:: Polity Press; Porter, M.E., (1986) Competition in Global Industries, pp. 15-60. , Porter ME, ed.;, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press; Homepage, , http://www.pipra.org/, Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture, Available at, (accessed 15 February 2013); Pugatch, M.P., (2004) The International Political Economy of Intellectual Property Rights, , Cheltenham: Edward Elgar; Raustiala, K., Victor, D.G., The regime complex for plant genetic resources (2004) International Organization, 58 (2), pp. 277-309; Reus-Smit, C., The constitutional structure of international society and the nature of fundamental institutions (1997) International Organization, 51 (4), pp. 555-589; Risse, T., Let's argue!': Communicative action in world politics (2000) International Organization, 54 (1), pp. 1-39; Rubenstein, J., Accountability in an unequal world (2007) Journal of Politics, 69 (3), pp. 616-632; Sabel, C.F., Zeitlin, J., (2011) Experimentalism in transnational governance: Emergent pathways and diffusion mechanisms, , Paper presented at annual conference of the International Studies Association; Montreal; Samhat, N., Payne, R., Regimes, public spheres, and global democracy (2003) Global Society, 17, pp. 273-295; Saward, M., (1998) The Terms of Democracy, , Cambridge: Polity Press; Scholte, J.A., Reinventing global democracy European Journal of International Relations; Sell, S.K., The quest for global governance in intellectual property and public health: Structural, discursive, and institutional dimensions (2004) Temple Law Review, 77 (1), pp. 363-400; Slaughter, A.M., (2004) A New World Order, , Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; Squatrito, T., Conditions of democracy-enhancing multilateralism: Expansion of rights protections in Europe? (2012) Review of International Studies, 38 (4), pp. 707-733; Subbiah, S., Reaping what they sow: The basmati rice controversy and strategies for protecting traditional knowledge (2004) Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, 27 (2), pp. 529-559; Tallberg, J., Squatrito, T., Sommerer, T., (2012) Dynamics of institutional change: Transnational access to international organizations, 1950-2010, , Paper prepared for the conference Explaining Institutional Change in World Politics: Historical Institutionalism and International Relations; WZB; Thacher, D., The normative case study (2006) American Journal of Sociology, 111 (6), pp. 1631-1676; Thayer, J.D., The trade of cross-border gambling and betting: The WTO dispute between Antigua and the United States (2004) Duke Law & Technology Review, 3 (1), pp. 1-12; Urbinati, N., Warren, M., The concept of representation in contemporary democratic theory (2008) Annual Review of Political Science, (11), pp. 387-412; Valentini, L., Assessing the global order: Justice, legitimacy, or political justice? (2012) Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 15 (5), pp. 593-612; Walt, S., (1987) The Origins of Alliances, , New York: Cornell University Press; Whelan, F.G., (1983) Liberal Democracy, pp. 13-47. , Chapman JWPennock RJ, ed.;, New York: New York University Press; Doha Declaration on TRIPs and Public Health (2001); (2005) Hong Kong Ministerial Declaration, , adopted 18 December, Geneva, WT/ MIN(05)/W/3/Rev.2; Yu, P., The objectives and principles of the TRIPS agreement (2009) Houston Law Review, 46 (4), pp. 979-1046; Zürn, M., Democratic governance beyond the nation-state: The EU and other international institutions (2000) European Journal of International Relations, 6 (2), pp. 183-221; Zürn, M., Binder, M., Ecker-Ehrhardt, M., International authority and its politicization (2012) International Theory, 4 (1), pp. 69-106
- experimental governance
- global democracy
- global governance
- intellectual property rights
- regime complexity