Global Sourcing of Low-Inorganic Arsenic Rice Grain

Manus Carey, Caroline Meharg , Paul Williams, Ernest Marwa, Xiao Jiujin, Julia Gomes Farias, P Mangala C S De Silva, Antonio Signes-Pastor, Ying Lu, Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso, Laurie Savage, Katrina Campbell, Christopher Elliott, Eureka Adomako, Andy J Green, Eduardo Moreno-Jimenez, Ángel Antonio Carbonell-Barrachina, Eridha Ayu Triwardhani, Febbyandi Isanda Pandianga, Parvez I. HarisYousef F. Lawgali, Alessia Sommella, Massimo Pigna, Catherine Brabet, Didier Montet, Keston Njira, Michael J. Watts, Andrew A. Meharg

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Abstract

Arsenic in rice grain is dominated by two species: the carcinogen inorganic arsenic (the sum of arsenate and arsenite) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Rice is the dominant source of inorganic arsenic into the human diet. As such, there is a need to identify sources of low-inorganic arsenic rice globally. Here we surveyed polished (white) rice across representative regions of rice production globally for arsenic speciation. In total 1180 samples were analysed from 29 distinct sampling zones, across 6 continents. For inorganic arsenic the global x~x~ was 66 μg/kg, and for DMA this figure was 21 μg/kg. DMA was more variable, ranging from < 2 to 690 μg/kg, while inorganic arsenic ranged from < 2 to 399 μg/kg. It was found that inorganic arsenic dominated when grain sum of species was < 100 μg/kg, with DMA dominating at higher concentrations. There was considerable regional variance in grain arsenic speciation, particularly in DMA where temperate production regions had higher concentrations. Inorganic arsenic concentrations were relatively consistent across temperate, subtropical and northern hemisphere tropical regions. It was only in southern hemisphere tropical regions, in the eastern hemisphere that low-grain inorganic arsenic is found, namely East Africa (x~x~ < 10 μg/kg) and the Southern Indonesian islands (x~x~ < 20 μg/kg). Southern hemisphere South American rice was universally high in inorganic arsenic, the reason for which needs further exploration.
Original languageEnglish
JournalExposure and Health
Early online date12 Nov 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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Arsenic
arsenic
rice
Cacodylic Acid
Acids
acid
tropical region
Southern Hemisphere
Oryza
Eastern Africa
Carcinogens
arsenite
carcinogen
arsenate
Nutrition
Islands
Northern Hemisphere
diet
Sampling
Diet

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Carey, Manus ; Meharg , Caroline ; Williams, Paul ; Marwa, Ernest ; Jiujin, Xiao ; Gomes Farias, Julia ; De Silva, P Mangala C S ; Signes-Pastor, Antonio ; Lu, Ying ; Nicoloso, Fernando Teixeira ; Savage, Laurie ; Campbell, Katrina ; Elliott, Christopher ; Adomako, Eureka ; Green, Andy J ; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo ; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel Antonio ; Triwardhani, Eridha Ayu ; Pandianga, Febbyandi Isanda ; Haris, Parvez I. ; Lawgali, Yousef F. ; Sommella, Alessia ; Pigna, Massimo ; Brabet, Catherine ; Montet, Didier ; Njira, Keston ; Watts, Michael J. ; Meharg, Andrew A. / Global Sourcing of Low-Inorganic Arsenic Rice Grain. In: Exposure and Health. 2019.
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title = "Global Sourcing of Low-Inorganic Arsenic Rice Grain",
abstract = "Arsenic in rice grain is dominated by two species: the carcinogen inorganic arsenic (the sum of arsenate and arsenite) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Rice is the dominant source of inorganic arsenic into the human diet. As such, there is a need to identify sources of low-inorganic arsenic rice globally. Here we surveyed polished (white) rice across representative regions of rice production globally for arsenic speciation. In total 1180 samples were analysed from 29 distinct sampling zones, across 6 continents. For inorganic arsenic the global x~x~ was 66 μg/kg, and for DMA this figure was 21 μg/kg. DMA was more variable, ranging from < 2 to 690 μg/kg, while inorganic arsenic ranged from < 2 to 399 μg/kg. It was found that inorganic arsenic dominated when grain sum of species was < 100 μg/kg, with DMA dominating at higher concentrations. There was considerable regional variance in grain arsenic speciation, particularly in DMA where temperate production regions had higher concentrations. Inorganic arsenic concentrations were relatively consistent across temperate, subtropical and northern hemisphere tropical regions. It was only in southern hemisphere tropical regions, in the eastern hemisphere that low-grain inorganic arsenic is found, namely East Africa (x~x~ < 10 μg/kg) and the Southern Indonesian islands (x~x~ < 20 μg/kg). Southern hemisphere South American rice was universally high in inorganic arsenic, the reason for which needs further exploration.",
author = "Manus Carey and Caroline Meharg and Paul Williams and Ernest Marwa and Xiao Jiujin and {Gomes Farias}, Julia and {De Silva}, {P Mangala C S} and Antonio Signes-Pastor and Ying Lu and Nicoloso, {Fernando Teixeira} and Laurie Savage and Katrina Campbell and Christopher Elliott and Eureka Adomako and Green, {Andy J} and Eduardo Moreno-Jimenez and Carbonell-Barrachina, {{\'A}ngel Antonio} and Triwardhani, {Eridha Ayu} and Pandianga, {Febbyandi Isanda} and Haris, {Parvez I.} and Lawgali, {Yousef F.} and Alessia Sommella and Massimo Pigna and Catherine Brabet and Didier Montet and Keston Njira and Watts, {Michael J.} and Meharg, {Andrew A.}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1007/s12403-019-00330-y",
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Carey, M, Meharg , C, Williams, P, Marwa, E, Jiujin, X, Gomes Farias, J, De Silva, PMCS, Signes-Pastor, A, Lu, Y, Nicoloso, FT, Savage, L, Campbell, K, Elliott, C, Adomako, E, Green, AJ, Moreno-Jimenez, E, Carbonell-Barrachina, ÁA, Triwardhani, EA, Pandianga, FI, Haris, PI, Lawgali, YF, Sommella, A, Pigna, M, Brabet, C, Montet, D, Njira, K, Watts, MJ & Meharg, AA 2019, 'Global Sourcing of Low-Inorganic Arsenic Rice Grain', Exposure and Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-019-00330-y

Global Sourcing of Low-Inorganic Arsenic Rice Grain. / Carey, Manus; Meharg , Caroline; Williams, Paul; Marwa, Ernest ; Jiujin, Xiao; Gomes Farias, Julia; De Silva, P Mangala C S; Signes-Pastor, Antonio; Lu, Ying; Nicoloso, Fernando Teixeira ; Savage, Laurie ; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher; Adomako, Eureka ; Green, Andy J; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel Antonio ; Triwardhani, Eridha Ayu ; Pandianga, Febbyandi Isanda ; Haris, Parvez I. ; Lawgali, Yousef F.; Sommella, Alessia; Pigna, Massimo; Brabet, Catherine; Montet, Didier; Njira, Keston ; Watts, Michael J. ; Meharg, Andrew A.

In: Exposure and Health, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Global Sourcing of Low-Inorganic Arsenic Rice Grain

AU - Carey, Manus

AU - Meharg , Caroline

AU - Williams, Paul

AU - Marwa, Ernest

AU - Jiujin, Xiao

AU - Gomes Farias, Julia

AU - De Silva, P Mangala C S

AU - Signes-Pastor, Antonio

AU - Lu, Ying

AU - Nicoloso, Fernando Teixeira

AU - Savage, Laurie

AU - Campbell, Katrina

AU - Elliott, Christopher

AU - Adomako, Eureka

AU - Green, Andy J

AU - Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo

AU - Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel Antonio

AU - Triwardhani, Eridha Ayu

AU - Pandianga, Febbyandi Isanda

AU - Haris, Parvez I.

AU - Lawgali, Yousef F.

AU - Sommella, Alessia

AU - Pigna, Massimo

AU - Brabet, Catherine

AU - Montet, Didier

AU - Njira, Keston

AU - Watts, Michael J.

AU - Meharg, Andrew A.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Arsenic in rice grain is dominated by two species: the carcinogen inorganic arsenic (the sum of arsenate and arsenite) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Rice is the dominant source of inorganic arsenic into the human diet. As such, there is a need to identify sources of low-inorganic arsenic rice globally. Here we surveyed polished (white) rice across representative regions of rice production globally for arsenic speciation. In total 1180 samples were analysed from 29 distinct sampling zones, across 6 continents. For inorganic arsenic the global x~x~ was 66 μg/kg, and for DMA this figure was 21 μg/kg. DMA was more variable, ranging from < 2 to 690 μg/kg, while inorganic arsenic ranged from < 2 to 399 μg/kg. It was found that inorganic arsenic dominated when grain sum of species was < 100 μg/kg, with DMA dominating at higher concentrations. There was considerable regional variance in grain arsenic speciation, particularly in DMA where temperate production regions had higher concentrations. Inorganic arsenic concentrations were relatively consistent across temperate, subtropical and northern hemisphere tropical regions. It was only in southern hemisphere tropical regions, in the eastern hemisphere that low-grain inorganic arsenic is found, namely East Africa (x~x~ < 10 μg/kg) and the Southern Indonesian islands (x~x~ < 20 μg/kg). Southern hemisphere South American rice was universally high in inorganic arsenic, the reason for which needs further exploration.

AB - Arsenic in rice grain is dominated by two species: the carcinogen inorganic arsenic (the sum of arsenate and arsenite) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Rice is the dominant source of inorganic arsenic into the human diet. As such, there is a need to identify sources of low-inorganic arsenic rice globally. Here we surveyed polished (white) rice across representative regions of rice production globally for arsenic speciation. In total 1180 samples were analysed from 29 distinct sampling zones, across 6 continents. For inorganic arsenic the global x~x~ was 66 μg/kg, and for DMA this figure was 21 μg/kg. DMA was more variable, ranging from < 2 to 690 μg/kg, while inorganic arsenic ranged from < 2 to 399 μg/kg. It was found that inorganic arsenic dominated when grain sum of species was < 100 μg/kg, with DMA dominating at higher concentrations. There was considerable regional variance in grain arsenic speciation, particularly in DMA where temperate production regions had higher concentrations. Inorganic arsenic concentrations were relatively consistent across temperate, subtropical and northern hemisphere tropical regions. It was only in southern hemisphere tropical regions, in the eastern hemisphere that low-grain inorganic arsenic is found, namely East Africa (x~x~ < 10 μg/kg) and the Southern Indonesian islands (x~x~ < 20 μg/kg). Southern hemisphere South American rice was universally high in inorganic arsenic, the reason for which needs further exploration.

U2 - 10.1007/s12403-019-00330-y

DO - 10.1007/s12403-019-00330-y

M3 - Article

JO - Exposure and Health

JF - Exposure and Health

SN - 2451-9766

ER -