Diabetes may induce both quantitative and qualitative changes in lipoproteins, especially low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Effects of LDL glycation on endothelial cell secretion of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have not been fully elucidated. Human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) tPA and PAI-1 production were determined after incubation with LDL (50 to 500 microg/mL protein, 24 h) from three sources: (1) nondiabetic LDL (N-LDL) modified in vitro to form six preparations: native, nonmodified (N); glycated (G); minimally oxidized (MO); minimally oxidized and glycated (MOG); heavily oxidized (HO); and heavily oxidized and glycated (HOG); (2) in vivo glycated and relatively nonglycated LDL subfractions from type 1 diabetic patients; (3) LDL from type 1 diabetic patients and matched controls, which was subfractionated using density gradient ultracentrifugation. In experiments using LDL modified in vitro, the rate of tPA release by HAECs incubated with N-LDL (83 +/- 4 ng/mg cell protein/24 h) did not differ significantly from those incubated with G-LDL (73 +/- 7), MO-LDL (74 +/- 13), or MOG-LDL (66 +/- 15) and was not influenced by LDL concentration. The rate of PAI-1 release was similar in HAECs incubated with N-LDL (5.7 +/- 0.6 mug/mg cell protein/24 h), G-LDL (5.7 +/- 0.7), MO-LDL (5.5 +/- 0.8), or MOG-LDL (5.7 +/- 0.9) and was not influenced by LDL concentration. In contrast, tPA release was significantly decreased in cells incubated with LDL (10 microg/mL) modified extensively by oxidation, and averaged 45.2 +/- 5.0 and 43.7 +/- 9.9 ng/mg/24 h for HO-LDL and HOG-LDL, respectively, and was further decreased with increasing concentrations of the heavily oxidized LDL preparations. PAI-1 release was not significantly decreased relative to N-LDL in cells incubated with low concentrations (5 to 50 microg/mL) of HO-LDL and HOG-LDL, but was decreased to 3.2 +/- 0.5 and 3.1 +/- 0.7 microg/mg/24 h for HO-LDL and HOG-LDL at 200 microg/mL, respectively. Results using in vivo glycated versus nonglycated LDL showed that tPA and PAI-1 release did not differ between subfractions. Release of tPA averaged 5.11 +/- 0.6 and 5.12 +/- 0.7 ng/mg/24 h, whereas release of PAI-1 averaged 666 +/- 27 ng/mg/24 h and 705 +/- 30 ng/mg/24 h for nonglycated and glycated LDL subfractions, respectively. Using LDL of different density subclasses, tPA and PAI-1 release in response to LDL from diabetic patients compared with control subjects did not differ when HAECs were incubated with LDLs of increasing density isolated from each subject pair. We conclude that oxidation of LDL, but not glycation, may contribute to the altered fibrinolysis observed in diabetes.
- Cells, Cultured
- Endothelium, Vascular
- Lipoproteins, LDL
- Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
- Tissue Plasminogen Activator