Gram negative infections in cystic fibrosis: a review of preventative and treatment options

Charlotte Addy, Steven Caskey, Damian Downey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
146 Downloads (Pure)


Introduction: The microbial landscape of CF is changing, reflecting advances in microbial detection, CF therapies and an increasingly heterogeneous and ageing population. Gram negative organisms are important to clinical trajectory, however, some have unknown implications on disease course.

Areas covered: This review covers the evolving landscape of the microbial ecosystem of the CF lung and provides an update on current diagnostic and therapeutic options for management of Gram negative bacteria. Evidence for prevention of acquisition of new organisms, and eradication of Gram negative pathogens is reviewed. There is an increasing range of inhaled antibiotic therapies for chronic suppressive antimicrobial therapy, with an urgent need for research into the efficacy of specific combinations. Intra-venous therapy for pulmonary exacerbations requires optimisation, focusing on greater precision, improved clinical outcomes, whilst reducing anti-microbial resistance and long-term side effects. The future role of CFTR modulators, anti-inflammatory agents and novel anti-infectives is also outlined.

Expert opinion: Antimicrobial therapy must evolve to reflect the evolving microbial landscape and the needs of current and future CF populations. With an increasing number of Gram negative organisms, detection methods and therapeutic options, it is critical therapy is targeted appropriately to the organism and the individual.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-26
Number of pages16
JournalExpert Opinion on Orphan Drugs
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jan 2020


  • Gram negative
  • Pseudomonas
  • Burkholderia Cepacia Complex
  • eradication
  • antibiotics
  • pulmonary exacerbations


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