Grand Challenges in Ocular Inflammatory Diseases

Heping Xu*, Narsing Rao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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There are two categories of ocular inflammatory disease, inflammation-driven diseases and pathological changes/degenerative disorders with significant inflammatory components. Examples of the former include keratitis, conjunctivitis, and uveitis, and inflammation is the primary cause of the disease. Dry eye syndrome (DES), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are typical examples of inflammation-related ocular degenerations. Although the initial triggers are not immune-related, chronic inflammation plays an important role in the initiation, progression and outcome of these disorders.

The clinical diagnosis and treatment of ocular inflammatory disorders are based on the anatomic location of the inflammation, as well as how the anatomic site plays a role in dissecting and understanding the pathogenesis of the inflammatory process. Based on the anatomic location, ocular inflammations are broadly grouped as (a) those involving conjunctiva, cornea and sclera as extraocular inflammations, and (b) those involving intraocular structures, called intraocular inflammations, where the uvea and the retina are the main sites of inflammation. Uveal inflammation can be limited to the iris and the ciliary body, the pars plana region or the choroid. They are recognized as anterior, intermediate, and posterior uveitis respectively. The inflammation involving the entire uveal tract is labelled as pan-uveitis.
Original languageEnglish
Article number756689
Number of pages7
JournalFrontiers in Ophthalmology
Publication statusPublished - 17 Feb 2022


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