Greener Dye Synthesis: Continuous, Solvent‐Free Synthesis of Commodity Perylene Diimides by Twin‐Screw Extrusion

Qun Cao, Deborah E. Crawford, Chengcheng Shi, Stuart L. James

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A continuous, scalable, and solvent‐free method for the synthesis of various naphthalic imides and perylene diimides (PDIs) using twin‐screw extrusion (TSE) is reported. Using TSE, naphthalic imides were obtained quantitatively without the need for excess amine reactant or product purification. With good functional‐group tolerance, alkyl and benzyl amine derived PDIs (incl. commercial dyes) were obtained in 50–99 % yield. Use of K2CO3, enabled synthesis of more difficult aniline‐derived PDIs. Furthermore, an automated continuous TSE process for Pigments Black 31 and 32 is demonstrated, with a throughput rate of about 1500 g day−1, corresponding to a space time yield of about 30×103 kg m−3 day−1, which is 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than for solvent‐based batch methods. These methods provide substantial waste reductions and improved efficiency compared to conventional solvent‐based methods.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages7
JournalAngewandte Chemie International Edition
Early online date29 Jan 2020
Publication statusEarly online date - 29 Jan 2020


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