Hapten synthesis and antibody production for the development of a melamine immunoassay

Hongtao Lei, Yucai Shen, Jongmin Song, Justin Yang, Cedric Chevallier, Simon Haughey, Haifeng Wang, Guangzhi Sun, Christopher Elliott

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70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The incorporation of melamine into food products is banned but its misuse has been widely reported in both animal feeds and food. The development of a rapid screening immunoassay for monitoring of the substance is an urgent requirement. Two haptens of melamine were synthesized by introducing spacer arms of different lengths and structures on the triazine ring of the analyte molecular structure. 6-Aminocaproic acid and 3-mercaptopropionic acid were reacted with 2-chloro-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine (CAAT) to produce hapten 1[3-(4,6-diamino-1,6-dihydro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino) hexanoic acid] and hapten 2[3-(4,6-diamino-1,6-dihydro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylthio) propanoic acid]. respectively. The molecular structures of the two haptens were identified by I H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, mass spectrometry and infrared spectrometry. An immunogen was prepared by coupling hapten 1 to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Two plate coating antigens were prepared by coupling both haptens to egg ovalbumin (OVA). A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) was developed to evaluate homogeneous and heterogeneous assay formats. The results showed that polyclonal antibodies with high titers were obtained, and the heterogeneous immunoassay format demonstrated a better performance with an IC50 of 70.6 ng mL(-1), a LOD of 2.6 ng mL(-1) and a LOQ of 7.6 ng mL(-1). Except for cyromazine, no obvious cross-reactivity to common compounds was found. The data showed that the hapten synthesis was successful and the resultant antisera could be used in an immunoassay for the rapid and sensitive detection of this banned chemical. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)84-90
Number of pages7
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
Volume665
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Spectroscopy
  • Environmental Chemistry

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