Purpose: Pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS; Elmiron) is a FDA-approved heparanase inhibitor for the treatment of bladder pain and interstitial cystitis. The chronic use of PPS has been associated with a novel pigmentary maculopathy, associated with discrete vitelliform deposits that exhibit hyperfluorescence, macular hyper-pigmentary spots, and foci of nodular RPE enlargement. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the retinal morphology of heparanase knockout mice. Material and methods: The retinal morphology of heparanase knock-out and age-matched control wild type mice of 3-, 9- and 15-weeks old was characterized by means of histological evaluation. Immuno-histological stains for RPE65, F4/80 and Ki67 were performed for investigating the RPE, inflammatory and proliferating cells, respectively. Results: Histological analysis showed no changes in age-matched wild-type controls, whereas the eyes of heparanase null mice were characterized by alterations in RPE and neural retina, as manifest by RPE folds and choroidal thickening, detached RPE cells, thickening of the photoreceptor layer and retinal disorganization. The presence of discrete hyperfluorescent foci, however, was absent. The prevalence of the RPE/choroidal changes or protrusions seemed to progress over time and were correlated with more RPE65 signal rather than influx of F4/80- or Ki67-positive cells. These results indicate that the subretinal alterations were mostly RPE driven, without influx of inflammatory or proliferating cells. Conclusions: Our results indicate that heparanase deficiency in the mice leads to RPE folds, choroidal thickening, and retinal disorganization. The presence of discrete hyperfluorescent foci, a key characteristic of the human disease, was not observed. However, it can be concluded that some of the observations in mice are similar to those seen after chronic use of PPS in humans. These findings indicate that the toxicity observed in the presence of heparanase inhibitors is target-related and will preclude the clinical use of heparanase inhibition as a therapeutic intervention.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2020 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- retinal pigment epithelium [RPE]
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Sensory Systems
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience