High-performance IQ modulator-based phase conjugator for modular retrodirective antenna array implementation

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26 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we verify a new phase conjugating architecture suitable for deployment as (lie core building block in retrodirective antenna arrays, which can be scaled to any number of elements in a modular way without impacting on complexity. Our solution is based on a modified in-phase and quadrature modulator architecture, which completely resolves four major shortcomings of the conventional mixer-based approach currently used for the synthesis of phase conjugated energy derived from a sampled incoming wavefront. 1) The architecture presented removes the need for a local oscillator running at twice the RF signal frequency to be conjugated. 2) It maintains a constant transmit power even if receive power goes as low as -120 dBm. 3) All unwanted re-transmit signal products are suppressed by at least 40 dB. 4) The issue of poor RF-IF leakage prevalent in mixer-based phase-conjugation solutions is completely mitigated. The circuit has also been shown to have high conjugation accuracy (better than +/-1 degrees at -60-dBm input). Near theoretically perfect experimental monostatic and bistatic results are presented for a ten-element retrodirective array constructed using the new phase conjugation architecture.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5223591
Pages (from-to)2301-2306
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Radiation


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