High-Speed Fully Homomorphic Encryption Over the Integers

Xiaolin Cao, Ciara Moore, Máire O'Neill, Neil Hanley, Elizabeth O'Sullivan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

19 Citations (Scopus)
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A fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) scheme is envisioned as a key cryptographic tool in building a secure and reliable cloud computing environment, as it allows arbitrary evaluation of a ciphertext without revealing the plaintext. However, existing FHE implementations remain impractical due to very high time and resource costs. To the authors’ knowledge, this paper presents the first hardware implementation of a full encryption primitive for FHE over the integers using FPGA technology. A large-integer multiplier architecture utilising Integer-FFT multiplication is proposed, and a large-integer Barrett modular reduction module is designed incorporating the proposed multiplier. The encryption primitive used in the integer-based FHE scheme is designed employing the proposed multiplier and modular reduction modules. The designs are verified using the Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA platform. Experimental results show that a speed improvement factor of up to 44 is achievable for the hardware implementation of the FHE encryption scheme when compared to its corresponding software implementation. Moreover, performance analysis shows further speed improvements of the integer-based FHE encryption primitives may still be possible, for example through further optimisations or by targeting an ASIC platform.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFinancial Cryptography and Data Security. Lecture Notes in Computer Science
EditorsRainer Bohme, Michael Brenner, Tyler Moore, Matthew Smith
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-662-44774-1
ISBN (Print)978-3-662-44773-4
Publication statusPublished - 2014
EventFC 2014 Workshops, BITCOIN and WAHC 2014, Christ Church, Barbados, March 7, 2014, Revised Selected Papers - Christ Church, Barbados
Duration: 07 Mar 201407 Mar 2014


ConferenceFC 2014 Workshops, BITCOIN and WAHC 2014, Christ Church, Barbados, March 7, 2014, Revised Selected Papers
CityChrist Church


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