Higher dietary flavonoid intakes are associated with lower objectively measured body composition in women: evidence from discordant monozygotic twins

Amy Jennings, Alex MacGregor, Tim Spector, Aedin Cassidy*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)
92 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background: Although dietary flavonoid intake has been associated with less weight gain, there are limited data on its impact on fat mass, and to our knowledge, the contribution of genetic factors to this relation has not previously been assessed. Objective: We examined the associations between flavonoid intakes and fat mass. Design: In a study of 2734 healthy, female twins aged 18-83 y from the TwinsUK registry, intakes of total flavonoids and 7 subclasses (flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, polymers, and proanthocyanidins) were calculated with the use of food-frequency questionnaires. Measures of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived fat mass included the limb-to-trunk fat mass ratio (FMR), fat mass index, and central fat mass index. Results: In cross-sectional multivariable analyses, higher intake of anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins were associated with a lower FMR with mean ± SE differences between extreme quintiles of 20.03 ± 0.02 (P-trend = 0.02), 20.03 ± 0.02 (P-trend = 0.03), and 20.05 6 0.02 (P-trend, 0.01), respectively. These associations were not markedly changed after further adjustment for fiber and total fruit and vegetable intakes. In monozygotic, intakediscordant twin pairs, twins with higher intakes of flavan-3-ols (n = 154, P = 0.03), flavonols (n = 173, P = 0.03), and proanthocyanidins (n = 172, P < 0.01) had a significantly lower FMR than that of their co-twins with within-pair differences of 3-4%. Furthermore, in confirmatory food-based analyses, twins with higher intakes of flavonolrich foods (onions, tea, and pears; P = 0.01) and proanthocyanidin-rich foods (apples and cocoa drinks; P = 0.04) and, in younger participants (aged,50 y) only, of anthocyanin-rich foods (berries, pears, grapes, and wine; P = 0.01) had a 3-9% lower FMR than that of their co-twins. Conclusions: These data suggest that higher habitual intake of a number of flavonoids, including anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins, are associated with lower fat mass independent of shared genetic and common environmental factors. Intervention trials are needed to further examine the effect of flavonoid-rich foods on body composition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)626-634
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume105
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jan 2017

Keywords

  • Body composition
  • Diet
  • Fat distribution
  • Flavonoids
  • Twins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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