Microneedles (MN) have the potential to become a highly progressive device for both drug delivery and monitoring purposes as they penetrate the skin and pierce the stratum corneum barrier, allowing the delivery of drugs in the viable skin layers and the extraction of body fluids. Despite the many years of research and the different types of MN developed, only hollow MN have reached the pharmaceutical market under the path of medical devices. Therefore, this review focuses on hollow MN, materials and methods for their fabrication as well as their application in drug delivery, vaccine delivery and monitoring purposes. Furthermore, novel approaches for the fabrication of hollow MN are included as well as prospects of microneedle-based products on the market.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the SPaRK project at Queen’s University Belfast funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement [No 754507] and also, the Indonesian Endowment Fund for Education (Lembaga Pengelola Dana Pendidikan/LPDP) scholarship.
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Hollow microneedles
- Intradermal drug delivery
- Transdermal drug delivery
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science