BACKGROUND: Hormone therapy is widely used in prostate cancer. However, studies have raised concerns that hormone therapy, particularly the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, could increase the risk of acute kidney injury.
METHODS: Men newly diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer, from 2012 to 2017, were identified from the Scottish Cancer Registry. A matched comparison cohort of prostate cancer-free men was also identified. Hormone therapy use was determined from the Prescribing Information System in Scotland. The primary outcome was hospitalisations with acute kidney injury taken from Scottish hospital records (SMR01) up to June 2019. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for acute kidney injury by hormone therapy use.
RESULTS: The prostate cancer cohort contained 10,751 patients followed for 41,997 person years, during which there were 618 hospitalisations with acute kidney injury. Prostate cancer patients had higher rates of acute kidney injury compared with cancer-free controls (adjusted HR = 1.47 95% CI 1.29, 1.69). However, prostate cancer patients currently using hormone therapy (adjusted HR = 1.14 95% CI 0.92, 1.41), including gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists (adjusted HR = 1.13 95% CI 0.90, 1.40), did not appear to have a marked increase in acute kidney injury compared with prostate cancer patients not using hormone therapy after adjusting for potential confounders.
CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, there was little evidence that gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists were associated with marked increases in acute kidney injury.