Drawing on the code theory of Basil Bernstein, this study set out to explore how the interplay between recognition rules and realization rules associated with framing is constituted, and why, through the issue of teacher-pupil interactions. A large-scale questionnaire survey was conducted of 4,552 primary school teachers in China, with a response rate of 70.65% (n=3,216). The findings show that recognition rules (teachers’ attitudes) stimulate passive realization rules (teachers’ ideas), and passive realization rules evoke active realization rules (teachers’ actions). As teachers are committed to achieving efficiency, they favor an elaborated coding orientation typical of excellent students because this contributes significantly to ease of teacher-pupil interactions. This intention creates strong hierarchical rules in regulative discourse by which teachers are able to recontextualize regulative discourse into instructional discourse. These correlations establish a legitimate platform for securing the privileged status of middleclass students in teacher-pupil interactions.
- Basil Bernstein; coding orientation; recognition rules; realization rules; hierarchical rules