Human body shadowing in cellular device-to-device communications: channel modeling using the shadowed κ−μ fading model

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Abstract

Using device-to-device communications as an underlay for cellular communications will provide an exciting opportunity to increase network capacity as well as improving spectral efficiency. The unique geometry of device-to-device links, where user equipment is often held or carried at low elevation and in close proximity to the human body, will mean that they are particularly susceptible to shadowing events caused not only by the local environment but also by the user's body. In this paper, the shadowed κ - μ fading model is proposed, which is capable of characterizing shadowed fading in wireless communication channels. In this model, the statistics of the received signal are manifested by the clustering of multipath components. Within each of these clusters, a dominant signal component with arbitrary power may exist. The resultant dominant signal component, which is formed by the phasor addition of these leading contributions, is assumed to follow a Nakagami- m distribution. The probability density function, moments, and the moment-generating function are also derived. The new model is then applied to device-to-device links operating at 868 MHz in an outdoor urban environment. It was found that shadowing of the resultant dominant component can vary significantly depending upon the position of the user equipment relative to the body and the link geometry. Overall, the shadowed κ - μ fading model is shown to provide a good fit to the field data as well as providing a useful insight into the characteristics of the received signal.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-119
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Volume33
Issue number1
Early online date11 Nov 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2015

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