Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine associations of fasting C-peptide, body mass index (BMI), and maternal glucose with the risk of preeclampsia in a multicenter multinational study. Study Design: We conducted a secondary analysis of a blinded observational cohort study. Subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24-32 weeks' gestation. Associations of preeclampsia with fasting C-peptide, BMI, and maternal glucose were assessed with the use of multiple logistic regression analyses and adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Of 21,364 women who were included in the analyses, 5.2% had preeclampsia. Adjusted odds ratios for preeclampsia for 1 SD higher fasting C-peptide (0.87 ug/L), BMI (5.1 kg/m), and fasting (6.9 mg/dL), 1-hour (30.9 mg/dL), and 2-hour plasma glucose (23.5 mg/dL) were 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.36), 1.60 (95% CI, 1.60-1.71), 1.08 (95% CI, 1.00-1.16), 1.19 (95% CI, 1.11-1.28), and 1.21 (95% CI,1.13-1.30), respectively. Conclusion: Results indicate strong, independent associations of fasting C-peptide and BMI with preeclampsia. Maternal glucose levels (below diabetes mellitus) had weaker associations with preeclampsia, particularly after adjustment for fasting C-peptide and BMI.