OBJECTIVE: The goal was to describe the temporal pattern of neonatal plasma glucose levels and associations with maternal glucose levels, cord serum C-peptide levels, and neonatal size and adiposity. METHODS: A total of 17 094 mothers and infants were included in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study (15 centers in 9 countries). Mothers underwent a 75-g, 2-hour, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. Cord blood and neonatal blood samples were collected. Biochemical neonatal hypoglycemia was defined as glucose levels of 90th percentile. CONCLUSIONS: Mean neonatal plasma glucose concentrations varied little in the first 5 hours after birth, which suggests normal postnatal adjustment. Biochemical and clinical hypoglycemia were weakly related to maternal OGTT glucose measurements but were strongly associated with elevated cord serum C-peptide levels. Larger and/or fatter infants were more likely to develop hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. These relationships suggest physiologic relationships between maternal glycemia and fetal insulin production.
Metzger, B. E., Lowe, L. P., Dyer, A. R., Persson, B., Cruickshank, J. K., Deerochanawong, C., Halliday, H. L., Trimble, E. R., Hennis, A. J., Liley, H., Ng, P. C., Coustan, D. R., Hadden, D. R., Hod, M., & Oats, J. J. N. (2010). Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcome study: Neonatal glycemia. Pediatrics, 126(6). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-2257