BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the association between baseline cardiovascular health (CVH) and incident cardiovascular disease differs according to coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke subtypes, and to assess the mediating effect of inflammatory and hemostatic blood biomarkers.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The association of ideal CVH with outcomes was derived in 9312 middle-aged men from Northern Ireland and France (whole cohort) in multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. The mediating effect of baseline inflammatory and hemostatic blood biomarkers was evaluated in a case-control study nested within the cohort after 10 years of follow-up. After a median follow-up of 10 years, 614 first CHD events and 117 first stroke events were adjudicated. Compared with those with poor CVH, those with an ideal CVH profile at baseline had a 72% lower risk of CHD (hazard ratio=0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.17; 0.46) and a 76% lower risk of stroke (hazard ratio =0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.06; 0.98). The magnitude of the risk reductions was similar for incident angina and myocardial infarction, but was lower for ischemic stroke. In the controls, the mean concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, and fibrinogen decreased with higher CVH status. Furthermore, the association of behavioral CVH with incident CHD was partly mediated by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (16.69%), IL-6 (8.52%), and fibrinogen (7.30%)
CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows no clear heterogeneity in the association of baseline CVH with the main subtypes of cardiovascular disease. This supports a universal promotion of ideal CVH for all cardiovascular disease subtypes. Furthermore, our mediation analysis suggests that the lower risk of CHD associated with ideal CVH is partly mediated by lower inflammatory and hemostatic blood biomarkers.
- Journal Article