Most organisms, from Bacteria to Eukarya, synthesize UDP–N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) from fructose-6-phosphate via a four-step reaction, and UDP–N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) can only be synthesized from UDP-GlcNAc by UDP-GlcNAc 4-epimerase. In Archaea, the bacterial-type UDP-GlcNAc biosynthetic pathway was reported for Methanococcales. However, the complete biosynthetic pathways for UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GalNAc present in one archaeal species are unidentified. Previous experimental analyses on enzymatic activities of the ST0452 protein, identified from the thermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii, predicted the presence of both a bacterial-type UDP-GlcNAc and an independent UDP-GalNAc biosynthetic pathway in this archaeon. In the present work, functional analyses revealed that the recombinant ST2186 protein possessed an glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase activity and that the recombinant ST0242 protein possessed a phosphoglucosamine-mutase activity. Along with the acetyltransferase and uridyltransferase activities of the ST0452 protein, the activities of the ST2186 and ST0242 proteins confirmed the presence of a bacterial-type UDP-GlcNAc biosynthetic pathway in S. tokodaii. In contrast, the UDP-GlcNAc 4-epimerase homologue gene was not detected within the genomic data. Thus, it was expected that galactosamine-1-phosphate or galactosamine-6-phosphate (GalN-6-P) was provided by conversion of glucosamine-1-phosphate or glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P). A novel epimerase converting GlcN-6-P to GalN-6-P was detected in a cell extract of S. tokodaii, and the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein indicated that the novel epimerase was encoded by the ST2245 gene. Along with the ST0242 phosphogalactosamine-mutase activity, this observation confirmed the presence of a novel UDP-GalNAc biosynthetic pathway from GlcN-6-P in S. tokodaii. Discovery of the novel pathway provides a new insight into the evolution of nucleotide sugar metabolic pathways.