Identification of milk from different animal and plant sources by desorption electrospray ionisation high-resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-MS)

Yunhe Hong*, Nicholas Birse, Brian Quinn, Holly Montgomery, Di Wu, Gonçalo Rosas da Silva, Saskia m. van Ruth, Christopher T. Elliott

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

This study used desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to analyse and detect and classify biomarkers in five different animal and plant sources of milk for the first time. A range of differences in terms of features was observed in the spectra of cow milk, goat milk, camel milk, soya milk, and oat milk. Chemometric modelling was then used to classify the mass spectra data, enabling unique or significant markers for each milk source to be identified. The classification of different milk sources was achieved with a cross-validation percentage rate of 100% through linear discriminate analysis (LDA) with high sensitivity to adulteration (0.1–5% v/v). The DESI-MS results from the milk samples analysed show the methodology to have high classification accuracy, and in the absence of complex sample clean-up which is often associated with authenticity testing, to be a rapid and efficient approach for milk fraud control.
Original languageEnglish
Article number14
Journalnpj Science of Food
Volume6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2022

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