Identifying early signs of aggression: psychometric properties of the cardiff infant contentiousness scale

Dale F. Hay, Oliver Perra, Katrhyn Hudson, Cerith S. Waters, Lisa Mundy, Rebecca Phillips, Ian Goodyear, Gordon Harold, Anita Thapar, Stephanie Van Goozen, C.C.D.S. Team

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Our aim was to develop an age-appropriate measure of early manifestations of aggression. We constructed a questionnaire about normative developmental milestones into which a set of items measuring infants’ use of physical force against people and expressed anger were included. These items comprise the Cardiff Infant Contentiousness Scale (CICS). Evidence for the reliability and validity of the CICS is provided from analyses of a sample of N5310 British infants, assessed at a mean age of 6 months as part of a larger longitudinal study of the development of aggression. The informants’ CICS ratings demonstrated reasonable levels of internal consistency and interrater agreement. Informants’ ratings were validated by observations of infants’ distress in response to restraint in a car seat. Longitudinal analyses revealed that contentiousness was stable over time and that contentiousness at 6 months predicted infants’ later use of force with peers. When used in the company of other methods, the simple four-item CICS scale could serve as a useful screen for early manifestations of aggressiveness in human infants.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)351-357
Number of pages7
JournalAggressive Behavior
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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