With continued global population expansion, food production will have to increase with crops protected against the growing menace of pests, requiring the increased use of pesticides globally to ensure that agricultural production is optimised and remains economically viable. The aim of this systematic review was to perform an in-depth analysis of pesticide legislation, focusing on rice, to understand the gaps that exist in the harmonisation across different countries. Tricyclazole, carbendazim, thiamethoxam and acephate were considered as these received the highest numbers of RASFF notifications and alerts due to their presence in rice. Global differences in regulations cause trade issues, especially when developing countries use unauthorised pesticides or different MRLs. Discrepancies in the registration and regulation of sales were found to be a global problem. Sales of pesticides and resulting residues in developing countries that are banned in the EU or US is highly concerning. Evidence suggests farmers’ education regarding pesticide use and protection must be increased, particularly as climate change is impacting pesticide use patterns and their bio-efficacy. In conclusion, international pesticide regulations have been implemented to protect consumer health, the environment and facilitate international trade. However, the absence of national MRLs in some countries or non-alignments with Codex MRLs raise significant concerns regarding some pesticides in relation to the protection of consumer health and the use of mixtures versus single pesticides. Additionally, global differences in pesticide regulation highlight problems in trade, especially when developing countries use unauthorised pesticides or when MRLs are not in agreement.
|Number of pages||22|
|Journal||Exposure and Health|
|Early online date||07 Oct 2022|
|Publication status||Early online date - 07 Oct 2022|
- Pesticide residues