Immunoassays, optical and electrochemical immunosensorsfor tetrodotoxin determination in puffer fish samples

Laia Reverte, P de la Iglesia, V del Rio, M Rambla, Katrina Campbell, Christopher Elliott, K Kawatsu, P Katikou, J Diogene, Monica Campas

Research output: Contribution to conferencePosterpeer-review


Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a low molecular weight and potent marine neurotoxin which is usually present in some species of puffer fish. TTX selectively binds to voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSGCs), blocking the influx of sodium into the cell and affecting neural transmission. The bioaccumulation of this toxin in seafood can poses a risk to human safety. With the purpose of achieving cheap, specific and reliable tools to determine TTX in puffer fish samples, a self-assembled dithiol-based immunoassay, an electrochemical immunosensor and an optical Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) immunosensor are proposed. The immunoassay for TTX based on the use of dithiols self-assembled on maleimide-plates (mELISA) has been able to detect as low as 2.28 μg/L of TTX. The effect of different puffer fish matrixes on this mELISA has been quantified and the corresponding correction factors have been established. This
mELISA has enabled to establish the cross-reactivity factors for four TTX analogues: 5,6,11-trideoxy-TTX, 5,6,11-trideoxy-4-anhydro-TTX, 11-nor-TTX-6-ol and 5,11-deoxy-TTX. The crossreactivity factors have also been established by the optical SPR immunosensor previously reported, which had a limit of detection (LOD) of 4.27 μg/L. The mELISA and the SPR immunosensor have then been tested with spiked-puffer fish matrixes, providing an effective
LOD of 0.23 and 0.43 mg/kg respectively, well below the limit set in Japan (2 mg/kg). The mELISA and the SPR immunosensor have also been applied to the analysis of naturally contaminated puffer fish samples, providing similar TTXs contents between techniques and also compared to LC-MS/MS. The suitability of these immunochemical techniques has been demonstrated not only for screening purposes, but also for research activities. Currently, given that dithiols could improve the electron transfer and the sensitivity of an electrochemical assay, the mELISA strategy is being transferred to gold electrodes for the electrochemical detection of TTX and the subsequent development of the multiplexed electrochemical immunosensor.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 25 May 2016
Event26th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors: Biosensors 2016 - Gothenburg, Sweden
Duration: 25 May 201527 May 2016


Conference26th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors
Internet address


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