Immunological Interactions between 2 Common Pathogens, Th1-Inducing Protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and the Th2-Inducing Helminth Fasciola hepatica

C.M.D. Miller, N.C. Smith, R.J. Ikin, N.R. Boulter, John Dalton, Sean Donnelly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The nature of the immune response to infection is dependent on the type of infecting organism. Intracellular organisms such as Toxoplasma gondii stimulate a Th1-driven response associated with production of IL-12, IFN-gamma, nitric oxide and IgG2a antibodies and classical activation of macrophages. In contrast, extracellular helminths such as Fasciola hepatica induce Th2 responses characterised by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IgG1 antibodies and alternative activation of macrophages. As co-infections with these types of parasites commonly exist in the field it is relevant to examine how the various facets of the immune responses induced by each may influence or counter-regulate that of the other.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere5692
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume4
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 May 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

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