Data sources Medline, Cochrane Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database, Web of Science and the abstracts of conference proceedings for International Association for Dental Research meetings.Study selection Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, and cohort studies measuring pre-treatment to post-treatment change in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) score using validated measures were included.Data extraction and synthesis Two reviewers independently screened and selected studies, and extracted data. Risk of bias was assessed independently using the Cochrane tool for RCTs and the Newcastle Ottawa Scale for non-randomised studies. Random effects meta-analysis was used to compare change in OHRQoL scores.Results Twenty one cohort studies and two RCTs were included. Eight studies investigated implant-supported crowns (ISCs), ten studies reported on implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (IFDPs), nine on dental prostheses (TFDPs) and two implant-supported removable dental prostheses (IRDPs). Seventeen papers contributed to the meta-analysis. At nine months the pooled mean OHRQoL change was 15.3 for TFDP, 11.9 for RPD, and 14.9 for IFDP and the pooled standardised OHRQoL change >9 months was 13.2 for TFDP and 15.8 for IFDP. Direct comparisons nine months between TFDP against IFDP and RPD against IFDP significantly favoured IFDP in both cases.Conclusions TFDP and IFDP had short- and long-term positive effects on OHRQoL. RPDs positively affected OHRQoL in the short term. IFDP showed greater short-term improvement in OHRQoL than RPD and TFDP.