This study was conducted to explore the effect of different autoclave heating times (30, 60 and 90 min) on fatty acids supply and molecular stability in Brassica carinata seed. Multivariate spectral analyses and correlation analyses were also carried out in our study. The results showed that autoclaving treatments significantly decreased the total fatty acids content in a linear fashion in B. carinata seed as heating time increased. Reduced concentrations were also observed in C18:3n3, C20:1, C22:1n9, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), omega 3 (ω-3) and 9 (ω-9) fatty acids. Correspondingly, the heated seeds showed dramatic reductions in all the peak intensities within lipid-related spectral regions. Results from agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the raw oilseed had completely different structural make-up from the autoclaved seeds in both CH3 and CH2 asymmetric and symmetric stretching region (ca. 2999–2800 cm−1) and lipid ester Cdouble bond; length as m-dashO carbonyl region (ca. 1787–1706 cm−1). However, the oilseeds heated for 30, 60 and 90 min were not grouped into separate classes or ellipses in all the lipid-related regions, indicating that there still exhibited similarities in lipid biopolymer conformations among autoclaved B. carinata seeds. Moreover, strong correlations between spectral information and fatty acid compositions observed in our study could imply that lipid-related spectral parameters might have a potential to predict some fatty acids content in oilseed samples, i.e. B. carinata. However, more data from large sample size and diverse range would be necessary and helpful to draw up a final conclusion.