PURPOSE: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for lung patients can be performed with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans using off-axis target geometry to allow treatment in their CBCT verified position. For patient-specific quality assurance measurements using the PTW Octavius 4D phantom (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) (OCT4D) in conjunction with an Octavius 1000SRS array (OCT1000) (PTW, Freiburg, Germany), repositioning the phantom off-axis is required to ensure the measurement area coincides with the tumor. The aim of this work is to quantify delivery errors using an array repositioned off-axis and evaluate new software which incorporates corrections for off-axis phantom measurements.
METHODS: Dynamic conformal arcs and 25 lung SABR plans were created with the isocenter at the patient midline and the target volume off-axis. Measurements were acquired with an OCT4D phantom in conjunction with a 729 array (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) (OCT729) placed at isocenter. These plans were recalculated and delivered to both the OCT729 and OCT1000 arrays repositioned so that the high-dose region was at the center of the phantom. Comparisons were made using VeriSoft v7.0 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) and the newly implemented version 7.1 with 2%/2 mm gamma criterion (10% threshold) and results correlated with off-axis distance to the tumor.
RESULTS: Average pass rates for VeriSoft v7.0 significantly reduced from 92.7 ± 2.4% to 84.9 ± 4.1% when the phantom was repositioned compared to the isocenter setup for the OCT729. The gamma pass rates significantly decreased the further the phantom was moved off-axis. Significantly higher pass rates were observed for the OCT1000 of 95.7 ± 3.6% and a significant decrease in gamma pass rate with off-axis phantom distance was again observed. In contrast, even with phantom repositioning, the pass rates for analysis with VeriSoft v7.1 were 93.7 ± 2.1% and 99.4 ± 1.1% for OCT729 and OCT1000, respectively. No significant difference in gamma pass rate was observed with off-axis phantom position irrespective of array type with the new software.
CONCLUSION: The errors in QA phantom measurements due to dose reconstruction at off-axis target geometry have been demonstrated for conformal arcs and clinical VMAT SABR plans. A novel software solution implemented by the vendor to allow accurate pass rates has been tested. This solution enables high-resolution arrays with small active detection areas to be used for quality assurance of SABR treatment plans in the off-axis treatment position.
- Journal Article