Improving RO PUF design using frequency distribution characteristics

Yifei Yu*, Chenghua Wang, Weiqiang Liu, Yijun Cui, Maire O'Neill

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


A Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) can be used to provide authentication of devices by producing die-unique responses. In PUFs based on ring oscillators (ROs) the responses are derived from the oscillation frequencies of the ROs. However, RO PUFs can be vulnerable to attack due to the frequency distribution characteristics of the RO arrays. In this letter, in order to improve the design of RO PUFs for FPGA devices, the frequencies of RO arrays implemented on a large number of FPGA chips are statistically analyzed. Three RO frequency distribution (ROFD) characteristics, which can be used to improve the design of RO PUFs are observed and discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages6
JournalIEICE Electronics Express
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jan 2015


  • Comparison strategies
  • Entropy density
  • Physical unclonable function
  • RO PUF

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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