Twenty-eight novel salts with tetramethyl-, tetraethyl-, and tetrabutylammonium and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cations paired with 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazolate, 4-nitro-1,2,3-triazolate, 2,4-dinitroimidazolate, 4,5-dinitroimidazolate, 4,5-dicyanoimidazolate, 4-nitroimidazolate, and tetrazolate anions have been prepared and characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and single-crystal Xray crystallography. The effects of cation and anion type and structure on the physicochemical properties of the resulting salts, including several ionic liquids, have been examined and discussed. Ionic liquids (defined as having m.p. <100 degrees C) were obtained with all combinations of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation ([C(4)mim](+)) and the heterocyclic azolate anions studied, and with several combinations of tetraethyl or tetrabutylammonium cations and the azolate anions. The [C(4)mim](+) azolates were liquid at room temperature exhibiting large liquid ranges and forming glasses on cooling with glasstransition temperatures in the range of -53 to -82 degrees C (except for the 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazolate salt with m.p. 33 degrees C). Six crystal structures of the corresponding tetraalkylammonium salts were determined and the effects of changes to the cations and anions on the packing of the structure have been investigated.
Katritzky, A. R., Singh, S., Kirichenko, K., Smiglak, M., Holbrey, J., Reichert, W. M., ... Rogers, R. D. (2006). In search of ionic liquids incorporating azolate anions. Chemistry-a European Journal, 12(17), 4630-4641. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.200500840