In vitro phototoxicity of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its methyl ester and the influence of barrier properties on their release from a bioadhesive patch.

Brendan Gilmore, Paul McCarron, Desmond Morrow, Diarmaid Murphy, David Woolfson, Ryan Donnelly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

opical administration of excess exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) leads to selective accumulation of the potent photosensitiser protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in neoplastic cells, which can then be destroyed by irradiation with visible light. Due to its hydrophilicity, ALA penetrates deep lesions, such as nodular basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) poorly. As a result, more lipophilic esters of ALA have been employed to improve tissue penetration. In this study, the in vitro release of ALA and M-ALA from proprietary creams and novel patch-based systems across normal stratum corneum and a model membrane designed to mimic the abnormal stratum corneum overlying neoplastic skin lesions were investigated. Receiver compartment drug concentrations were compared with the concentrations of each drug producing high levels of PpIX production and subsequent light-induced kill in a model neoplastic cell line (LOX). LOX cells were found to be quite resistant to ALA- and M-ALA-induced phototoxicity. However, drug concentrations achieved in receiver compartments were comparable to those required to induce high levels of cell death upon irradiation in cell lines reported in the literature. Patches released significantly less drug across normal stratum corneum and significantly more across the model membrane. This is of major significance since the selectivity of PDT for neoplastic lesions will be further enhanced by the delivery system. ALA/M-ALA will only be delivered in significant amounts to the abnormal tissue. PpIX will only then accumulate in the neoplastic cells and the normal surrounding tissue will be unharmed upon irradiation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-309
Number of pages15
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Volume63(3)
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Pharmaceutical Science

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