Including disabled children at school: Is it really as simple as 'a, c, d'?

N. Higgins, J. MacArthur, Bernadette Kelly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents and discusses a social justice strategy that may progress inclusion in schools. The framework for this strategy is grounded in the theoretical discussions by Nancy Fraser and Trevor Gale about distributive, redistributive, and recognitive models of social justice. None of these theoretical frameworks, however, in themselves, offer a clear way forward for marginalised and misrecognised groups, such as disabled children, who need both educational resources and recognition in inclusive classrooms. The authors propose, however, that the work of Fraser and Gale combines into a social justice strategy, which consists of three elements (agency, competency, and diversity, or ‘a, c, d’) that can lead to inclusion. When disabled children are provided with the opportunity to exercise their agency, demonstrate their competence, and transform and affirm notions of diversity, then inclusion is more likely to occur in the classroom. Data from two research projects are presented using this framework to illustrate this argument, and the proposed ‘a, c, d’ social justice strategy towards inclusion.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)471-487
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Inclusive Education
Issue number5
Early online date24 Jun 2009
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2009


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