Energy intake in 15-20% of the UK older population is currently thought to be inadequate for health. Based on the suggestion that increases in food pleasantness and familiarity can increase intake, this study investigated the impact of the addition of sauce to an older person's meal on subsequent intake. Twenty-eight older people consumed two meals with sauce and the same two meals without sauce on different occasions, and amount consumed in terms of weight, energy and energy consumed from carbohydrate, fat and protein were compared. Pre-meal hunger and desire to eat, post-meal pleasantness and familiarity and participants' expectations of the effects of sauces were also measured. Compared to meals without sauce, meals with sauce were found to result in greater intakes of energy, energy consumed from protein and energy consumed from fat (smallest t(27)=2.13, p=0.04). No differences between conditions were found in measures of pre-meal hunger and desire to eat, or post-meal pleasantness and familiarity (largest t(27) = 1.47, p = 0.15). Similar effects were also found when participant expectations were taken into account, and no differences between participants who expected sauces to affect intake vs. those who did not expect sauces to affect intake were found (largest F(1, 26) = 1.70, p=0.20). These findings suggest that the addition of sauce to an older person's meal can result in increases in intake and may be beneficial for preventing or treating under-nutrition in these individuals, although the mechanisms by which sauces can increase intake are unlikely to be related to pleasantness and familiarity. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nutrition and Dietetics