Influence of a pore-forming agent on swelling, network parameters, and permeability of poly(ethylene glycol)-crosslinked poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) hydrogels: Application in transdermal delivery systems

Thakur Raghu raj Singh, M.J. Garland, K. Migalska, E.C. Salvador, R. Shaikh, H.O. McCarthy, A. David Woolfson, R.F. Donnelly, Thakur Raghu Raj Singh

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We characterized hydrogels, prepared from aqueous blends of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) (PMVE/MA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 10,000 Daltons) containing a pore-forming agent (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO ). Increase in NaHCO content increased the equilibrium water content (EWC) and average molecular weight between crosslinks (M ) of hydrogels. For example, the %EWC was 731, 860, 1109, and 7536% and the M was 8.26, 31.64, 30.04, and 3010.00 × 10 g/mol for hydrogels prepared from aqueous blends containing 0, 1, 2, and 5% w/w of NaHCO , respectively. Increase in NaHCO content also resulted in increased permeation of insulin. After 24 h, percentage permeation was 0.94, 3.68, and 25.71% across hydrogel membranes prepared from aqueous blends containing 0, 2, and 5% w/w of NaHCO , respectively. Hydrogels containing the pore-forming agent were fabricated into microneedles (MNs) for transdermal drug delivery applications by integrating the MNs with insulin-loaded patches. It was observed that the mean amount of insulin permeating across neonatal porcine skin in vitro was 20.62% and 52.48% from hydrogel MNs prepared from aqueous blends containing 0 and 5% w/w of NaHCO . We believe that these pore-forming hydrogels are likely to prove extremely useful for applications in transdermal drug delivery of biomolecules.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2680-2694
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2012


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