Influence of solution viscosity and injection protocol on distribution patterns of jet injectors: Application to photodynamic tumour targeting

Ryan Donnelly, D.I.J. Morrow, P.A. McCarron, M.J. Garland, A.D. Woolfson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Photodynamic therapy of deep or nodular skin tumours is currently limited by the poor tissue penetration of the porphyrin precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and preformed photosensitisers. In this study, we investigated the potential of jet injection to deliver both ALA and a preformed photosensitiser (meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate, TMP) into a defined volume of skin. Initial studies using a model hydrogel showed that as standoff distance is increased, injection depth decreases. As the ejected volume is increased, injection depth increases. It was also shown, for the first time, that, as injection solution viscosity was increased, for a given injection setting and standoff distance, both total depth of jet penetration, L-t, and depth at which the maximum width of the penetration pattern occurred, L-m, decreased progressively. For a standoff distance of zero, the maximum width of the penetration pattern, L-w, increased progressively with increasing viscosity at each of the injection settings. Conversely, when the standoff distance was 2.5 mm, L-w decreased progressively with increasing viscosity. Studies with neonate porcine skin revealed that an injection protocol comprising an 8.98 mPas solution, an arbitrary injection setting of 8 and a standoff distance of zero was capable of delivering photosensitisers to a volume of tissue (L-t of 2.91 mm, L-m of 2.14 mm, L-w of 5. 10 mm) comparable to that occupied by a typical nodular basal cell carcinoma. Both ALA and TMP were successfully delivered using jet injection, with peak tissue concentrations (67.3 mg cm(-3) and 5.6 mg cm(-3), respectively) achieved at a depth of around 1.0 mm and substantial reductions in drug concentration seen at depths below 3.0 mm. Consequently, jet injection may be suitable for selective targeting of ALA or preformed photosensitisers to skin tumours. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-109
Number of pages12
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - 14 Dec 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science
  • Bioengineering
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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