Inkjet printing of insulin microneedles for transdermal delivery

Steven Ross, Nicolaos Scoutaris, Dimitrios Lamprou, David Mallinson, Dennis Douroumis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Inkjet printing technology was used to apply insulin polymeric layers on metal microneedles for transdermal delivery. A range of various polymers such as gelatin (GLN), polyvinyl caprolactame-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol (SOL), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (POX) and trehalose (THL) were assessed for their capacity to form thin uniform and homogeneous layers that preserve insulin intact. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed homogeneous insulin–polymer layers without any phase separation while SOL demonstrated the best performance. Circular discroism (CD) analysis of rehydrated films showed that insulin’s alpha helices and β–sheet were well preserved for THL and SOL. In contrast, GLN and POX insulin layers revealed small band shifts indicating possible conformational changes. Insulin release in Franz diffusion cells from MNs inserted into porcine skin showed rapid release rates for POX and GLN within the first 20 min. Inkjet printing was proved an effective approach for transdermal delivery of insulin in solid state.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)451-461
Number of pages11
JournalDrug Delivery and Translational Research
Issue number4
Early online date05 Aug 2015
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Inkjet printing
  • Insulin
  • Microneedles
  • Transdermal delivery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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