Chemotherapy-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) signaling reduces the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. In this study, we investigated how endogenous and drug-induced IL-8 signaling altered the extrinsic apoptosis pathway by determining the sensitivity of LNCaP and PC3 cells to administration of the death receptor agonist tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL induced concentration-dependent decreases in LNCaP and PC3 cell viability, coincident with increased levels of apoptosis and the potentiation of IL-8 secretion. Administration of recombinant human IL-8 was shown to increase the mRNA transcript levels and expression of c+FLIPL and c-FLIPS, two isoforms of the endogenous caspase-8 inhibitor. Pretreatment with the CXCR2 antagonist AZ10397767 significantly attenuated IL-8-induced c-FLIP mRNA up-regulation whereas inhibition of androgen receptor- and/or nuclear factor-kappa B-mediated transcription attenuated IL-8-induced c-FLIP expression in LNCaP and PC3 cells, respectively. Inhibition of c-FLIP expression was shown to induce spontaneous apoptosis in both cell lines and to sensitize these prostate cancer cells to treatment with TRAIL, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel. Coadministration of AZ10397767 also increased the sensitivity of PC3 cells to the apoptosis-inducing effects of recombinant TRAIL, most likely due to the ability of this antagonist to block TRAIL- and IL-8-induced up-regulation of c-FLIP in these cells. We conclude that endogenous and TRAIL-induced IL-8 signaling can modulate the extrinsic apoptosis pathway in prostate cancer cells through direct transcriptional regulation of c-FLIP. Therefore, targeted inhibition of IL-8 signaling or c-FLIP expression in prostate cancer may be an attractive therapeutic strategy to sensitize this stage of disease to chemotherapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research