International courts and global democratic values: Participation, accountability, and justification

J.W. Kuyper, T. Squatrito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In a post-Cold War era characterised by globalisation and deep interdependence, the actions of national governments increasingly have an effect beyond their own territorial borders. Moreover, key agents of global governance-international organisations and their bureaucracies, non-state actors and private agents-exercise pervasive forms of authority. Due to these shifts, it is widely noted that world politics suffers from a democratic deficit. This article contributes to work on global democracy by looking at the role of international courts. Building upon an original dataset covering the 24 international courts in existence since the end of the Second World War, we argue that international courts are able to advance democratic values and shape democratic practices beyond the state. They can do so by fostering equal participation, accountability, and public justification that link individuals directly with sites of transnational authority. We contend that the ability of international courts to promote these values is conditioned by institutional design choices concerning access rules, review powers, and provisions regarding judicial reason-giving. We canvass these design features of different international courts and assess the promises and pitfalls for global democratisation. We conclude by linking our analysis of international courts and global democratisation with debates about the legitimation and politicisation of global governance at large. © British International Studies Association 2016.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-176
JournalReview of International Studies
Volume43
Issue number1
Early online date01 Aug 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2017

Bibliographical note

Export Date: 19 September 2018

Correspondence Address: Kuyper, J.W.; Department of Political Science, Stockholm University, Universeitwagen 10 F, Plan 5, Sweden; email: jonathan.kuyper@statsvet.su.se

References: Higgott, R., Erman, E., Deliberative global governance and the question of legitimacy: What can we learn from the WTO? (2010) Review of International Studies, 36 (2), pp. 449-470; Dingwerth, K., Global democracy and the democratic minimum: Why a procedural account alone is insufficient (2014) European Journal of International Relations, 20 (4), pp. 1124-1147; Held, D., Cosmopolitanism: Globalization tamed? (2003) Review of International Studies, 29 (4), pp. 465-480; Aart Scholte, J., Reinventing global democracy (2014) European Journal of International Relations, 20 (1), pp. 3-28; Marchetti, R., A matter of drawing boundaries: Global democracy and international exclusion (2008) Review of International Studies, 34 (2), pp. 207-224; Archibugi, D., Held, D., (1995) Cosmopolitan Democracy: An Agenda for A New World Order, , Cambridge Polity Press; Alter, K.J., (2014) The New Terrain of International Law: Courts, Politics, Rights, p. 75. , Princeton: Princeton University Press; Von Bogdandy, A., The democratic legitimacy of international courts: A conceptual framework (2013) Theoretical Inquiries in Law, 14 (2), p. 370; Erskine, T., Locating responsibility: The problem of moral agency in International Relations (2008) Oxford Handbook of International Relations, pp. 699-707. , Oxford: Oxford University Press, in Christian Reus-Smit and Duncan Snidal; Lang, A.F., (2015) International Political Theory: An Introduction, , New York Palgrave Macmillan; Sangiovanni, A., Justice and priority of politics to morality (2008) Journal of Political Philosophy, 15 (2), pp. 137-164; Valentini, L., Torresi, T., Introduction-international law and global justice: A happy marriage (2011) Review of International Studies, 37 (5), pp. 2035-2041; Walzer, M., (2006) Just Unjust Wars A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations, , 4th edn, New York Basic Books; Lazar, S., Necessity and non-combatant immunity (2014) Review of International Studies, 40 (1), pp. 53-76; Little, A., Macdonald, K., Pathways to global democracy: Escaping the statist imaginary (2013) Review of International Studies, 39 (4), pp. 789-813; Karlsson Schaffer, J., The boundaries of transnational democracy: Alternatives to the all-Affected principle (2012) Review of International Studies, 38 (2), pp. 321-342; Dellmuth, L., Tallberg, J., The social legitimacy of international organisations: Interest representation, institutional performance, and confidence extrapolation in the United Nations (2015) Review of International Studies, 41 (3), pp. 451-475; Marchetti, A Matter of Drawing Boundaries; Bray, D., Slaughter, S., (2015) Global Democratic Theory Problems and Possibilities, , Cambridge Polity Press; Held, D., (1995) Democracy and the Global Order: From the Modern State to Cosmopolitan Governance, , Cambridge Polity Press; Marchetti, R., (2008) Global Democracy for and Against-Ethical Theory Institutional Design, and Social Struggles, , Abingdon Routledge; Scheuerman, W.E., Cosmopolitanism and the world state (2014) Review of International Studies, 40 (3), pp. 419-441; Dryzek, J.S., (2000) Deliberative Democracy and Beyond: Liberals Critics Contestation, , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Bohman, J., Democratising the global order: From communicative freedom to communicative power (2010) Review of International Studies, 36 (2), pp. 431-447; Newell, P., Democratising biotechnology? Deliberation, participation and social regulation in a neo-liberal world (2010) Review of International Studies, 36 (2), pp. 471-491; Keohane, R., Macedo, S., Moravcsik, A., Democracy-enhancing multilateralism (2009) International Organization, 63 (1), pp. 1-31; Squatrito, T., Conditions of democracyenhancing multilateralism: Expansion of rights protections in Europe? (2012) Review of International Studies, 38 (4), pp. 707-733; Negri, A., Hardt, M., (2000) Empire, , Harvard: Harvard University Press; Bray, D., Pragmatic ethics and the will to believe in cosmopolitanism (2011) International Theory, 5 (3), pp. 446-476; Shaffer, The Boundaries of Transnational Democracy; Little, Macdonald, Pathways to Global Democracy; Koenig-Archibugi, M., Is global democracy possible? (2010) European Journal of International Relations, 17 (3), pp. 519-542; Kuyper, J.W., Global democratization and international regime complexity (2014) European Journal of International Relations, 20 (3), pp. 620-646; Valentini, L., Ideal vs non-ideal theory: A conceptual map (2012) Philosophy Compass, 7 (9), pp. 654-664; Bexell, M., Tallberg, J., Uhlin, A., Democracy in global governance: The promise and pitfalls of transnational actors (2010) Global Governance, 16 (1), pp. 85-86; Dingwerth, Global Democracy and the Democratic Minimum, p. 1141; Macdonald, T., Macdonald, K., Non-electoral accountability in global politics: Strengthening democratic control within the global garment industry (2006) European Journal of International Law, 17 (1), pp. 89-119; Krisch, N., (2010) Beyond Constitutionalism: The Pluralist Structure of Postnational Law, pp. 78-88. , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Benhabib, S., Claiming rights across borders: International human rights and democratic sovereignty (2009) American Political Science Review, 103 (4), pp. 691-704; Macdonald, Macdonald, Non-electoral Accountability; Grant, R.W., Keohane, R., Accountability and abuses of power in world politics (2005) American Political Science Review, 99 (1), p. 29; Kuyper, Global Democratization and International Regime Complexity, pp. 620-646; Forst, R., (2011) The Right to Justification: Elements of A Constructivist Theory of Justice, , New York: Columbia University Press; Newell, P., Democratising biotechnology? Deliberation, participation and social regulation in a neo-liberal world (2010) Review of International Studies, 36 (2), pp. 471-491; Habermas, J., (1996) Between Facts and Norms, , Cambridge, MA MIT Press; Dryzek, Deliberative Democracy; Little, Macdonald, Pathways to Global Democracy; Erman, E., Search of democratic agency in deliberative governance (2012) European Journal of International Relations, 19 (4), pp. 847-868; Macdonald, Macdonald, Non-electoral Accountability; Shaffer, The Boundaries of Transnational Democracy; Bohman, Democratising the Global Order; Valentini, L., No global demos, no global democracy? A systematization and critique (2014) Perspectives on Politics, 12 (4), pp. 789-807; Goodin, R., Global democracy: In the beginning (2010) International Theory, 2 (2), pp. 175-209; Wiener, A., Lang, A.F., Tully, J., Poiares Maduro, M., Kumm, M., Global constitutionalism: Human rights, democracy and the rule of law (2012) Global Constitutionalism, 1 (1), pp. 1-15; Milewicz, K., Bächtiger, A., Nothdurft, A., Constitutional pluralism or constitutional unity? An empirical study of international commitment (1945-2007) (2010) Review of International Studies, 36 (2), pp. 305-336; Dunoff, J.L., Trachtman, J.P., (2009) Ruling the World? Constitutionalism, International: Law, and Global Governance, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Teubner, G., Fischer-Lescano, A., Regime-collisions: The vain search for legal unity in the fragmentation of global law (2004) Michigan Journal of International Law, 25 (4), pp. 999-1045; Schiff Berman, P., Global legal pluralism (2007) Southern California Law Review, 80 (6), pp. 1155-1237; Fassbender, B., We the peoples of the United Nations: Constituent power and constitutional form in international law (2007) The Paradox of Constitutionalism: Constituent Power and Constitutional Form, pp. 269-290. , Oxford: Oxford University, in Neil Walker and Martin Loughlin; Krisch, Beyond Constitutionalism; Romano, C., Alter, K., Shany, Y., Mapping international courts and tribunals, the issues and players (2013) The Oxford Handbook of International Adjudication, p. 6. , Oxford: Oxford University Press, in Cesare Romano, Karen Alter, and Yuval Shany; Romano, C., A taxonomy of international rule of law institutions (2011) Journal of International Dispute Settlement, 2 (1), p. 262; Grossman, N., The normative legitimacy of international courts (2013) Temple Law Review, 86 (1), pp. 61-106; Alter, The New Terrain of International Law, p. 75; Helfer, L., The effectiveness of international adjudicators, in Romano, Alter, and Shany The Oxford Handbook, p. 464; Burley, A., Mattli, W., Europe before the court: A political theory of legal integration (1993) International Organization, 47 (1), pp. 41-76; Bown, C., On the economic success of GATT/WTO dispute settlement (2004) Review of Economic Statistics, 86 (3), pp. 811-823; Jo, H., Simmons, B., (2014) Can the International Criminal Court Deter Atrocity?, , http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2552820; Nettelfield, L., (2013) Courting Democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina: The Hague Tribunals Impact in A Postwar State, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Hillebrecht, C., (2014) Domestic Politics and International Human Rights Tribunals: The Problem of Compliance, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Helfer, L., Voeten, E., International courts as agents of legal change: Evidence from LGBT rights in Europe (2014) International Organization, 68 (1), pp. 77-110; La Haye, E., (2008) War Crimes in Internal Armed Conflict, , New York: Cambridge University Press; Shany, Y., No longer a weak department of power? Reflections on the emergence of a new international judiciary (2009) European Journal of International Law, 20 (1), pp. 73-91; Alter, The New Terrain of International Law; Cichowski, R.A., Courts, rights and democratic participation (2006) Comparative Political Studies, 39 (1), p. 55; Cichowski The, R.A., (2007) European Court and Civil Society: Litigation Mobilization and Governance, , New York: Cambridge University Press; Alter, The New Terrain of International Law; Cichowski, Courts, Rights and Democratic Participation; Keohane, R.O., Moravcsik, A., Slaughter, A., Legalized dispute resolution: Interstate and transnational (2000) International Organization, 54 (3), pp. 457-488; Mackenzie, R., Romano, C., Sands, P., Shany, Y., (2010) The Manual on International Courts and Tribunals, pp. 88-89. , Oxford: Oxford University Press; http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0260210516000218; Dahl, R., (1982) Dilemmas of Pluralist Democracy, p. 6. , New Haven Yale University Press; Gathii, J.T., Mission creep or a search for relevance: The East African Court of Justices human rights strategy (2013) Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law, 24 (2), pp. 249-296; Cichowski, The European Court and Civil Society; Keck, M., Sikkink, K., (1998) Activists beyond Borders Advocacy Networks in International Politics, , Ithaca: Cornell University Press; Cichowski, The European Court and Civil Society; Bogdandy, The Democratic Legitimacy of International Courts, p. 370; Williams, S., Woolaver, H., The role of amicus curiae before international criminal tribunals (2006) International Criminal Law Review, 6 (2), p. 185; Eckersley, R., A green public sphere in the WTO?: The amicus curiae interventions in the transatlantic biotech dispute (2007) European Journal of International Relations, 13 (3), pp. 329-356; Holzscheiter, A., Representation as power and performative practice: Global civil society advocacy for working children Review of International Studies (Forthcoming), , http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0260210515000145; Cichwoski, Courts, Rights and Democratic Participation; Alter, The New Terrain of International Law; Von Bogdandy, A., Venzke, I., On the democratic legitimation of international judicial lawmaking (2011) German Law Journal, 12 (5), pp. 1341-1370; Grossman, The Normative Legitimacy of International Courts; Grant, Keohane, Accountability and Abuses of Power; Ioannidis, M., A procedural approach to the legitimacy of international adjudication: Developing standards of participation in WTO law (2011) German Law Journal, 125, pp. 1175-1202; Alter, The New Terrain of International Law, p. 202; Shapiro, M., (1992) The Reason Giving Requirement, pp. 179-220. , University of Chicago Legal Forum; Forst, The Right to Justification; Helfer, L., Slaughter, A., Towards a theory of effective supranational adjudication (1997) Yale Law Journal, 107 (2), p. 321; Weiler, J.H.H., Epilogue: The judicial après Nice in Gráinne de Búrca and J. H. H. Weiler (2001) The European Court of Justice, p. 225. , Oxford: Oxford University Press; Perju, V., Reason and authority in the European Court of Justice (2009) Virginia Journal of International Law, 49 (2), pp. 307-377; Sunstein, C., Public deliberation, affirmative action, and the Supreme Court (1996) California Law Review, 84 (4), p. 1183; Steenbergen, M.R., Bächtiger, A., Spörndli, M., Steiner, J., Measuring political deliberation: A Discourse Quality Index (2003) Comparative European Politics, 1, pp. 21-48

Keywords

  • Accountability
  • Global Democratisation
  • International Courts
  • Justification
  • Participation

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'International courts and global democratic values: Participation, accountability, and justification'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this