Spray-dried formulations offer an attractive delivery system for administration of drug encapsulated into liposomes to the lung, but can suffer from low encapsulation efficiency and poor aerodynamic properties. In this paper the effect of the concentration of the anti-adherent l-leucine was investigated in tandem with the protectants sucrose and trehalose. Two manufacturing methods were compared in terms of their ability to offer small liposomal size, low polydispersity and high encapsulation of the drug indometacin. Unexpectedly sucrose offered the best protection to the liposomes during the spray drying process, although formulations containing trehalose formed products with the best powder characteristics for pulmonary delivery; high glass transition values, fine powder fraction and yield. It was also found that l-leucine contributed positively to the characteristics of the powders, but that it should be used with care as above the optimum concentration of 0.5% (w/w) the size and polydispersity index increased significantly for both disaccharide formulations. The method of liposome preparation had no effect on the stability or encapsulation efficiency of spray-dried powders containing optimal protectant and anti-adherent. Using l-leucine at concentrations higher than the optimum level caused instability in the reconstituted liposomes.
- disaccharide; leucine; liposomes; spray drying
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science