During exposure to ionizing radiation, sub-lethal damage repair (SLDR) competes with DNA damage induction in cultured cells. By virtue of SLDR, cell survival increases with decrease of dose-rate, so-called dose-rate effects (DREs). Here, we focused on a wide dose-rate range and investigated the change of cell-cycle distribution during X-ray protracted exposure and dose-response curves via hybrid analysis with a combination of in vitro experiments and mathematical modelling. In the course of flow-cytometric cell-cycle analysis and clonogenic assays, we found the following responses in CHO-K1 cells: (1) The fraction of cells in S phase gradually increases during 6 h exposure at 3.0 Gy/h, which leads to radio-resistance. (2) Slight cell accumulation in S and G2/M phases is observed after exposure at 6.0 Gy/h for more than 10 hours. This suggests that an increase of SLDR rate for cells in S phase during irradiation may be a reproducible factor to describe changes in the dose-response curve at dose-rates of 3.0 and 6.0 Gy/h. By re-evaluating cell survival for various dose-rates of 0.186-60.0 Gy/h considering experimental-based DNA content and SLDR, it is suggested that the change of S phase fraction during irradiation modulates the dose-response curve and is possibly responsible for some inverse DREs.