Understanding the transport properties of charged particle beams is important not only from a fundamental point of view but also due to its relevance in a variety of applications. A theoretical model is established in this article, to model the interaction of a tenuous positively charged ion beam with an ultradense quantum electron-ion plasma, by employing a rigorous relativistic quantum-hydrodynamic (fluid plasma) electrostatic model proposed in McKerr et al. [M. McKerr, F. Haas, and I. Kourakis, Phys. Rev. E 90, 033112 (2014)]. A nonlinear analysis is carried out to elucidate the propagation characteristics and the existence conditions of large amplitude electrostatic solitary waves propagating in the plasma in the presence of the beam. Anticipating stationary profile excitations, a pseudomechanical energy balance formalism is adopted to reduce the fluid evolution equation to an ordinary differential equation. Exact solutions are thus obtained numerically, predicting localized excitations (pulses) for all of the plasma state variables, in response to an electrostatic potential disturbance. An ambipolar electric field form is also obtained. Thorough analysis of the reality conditions for all variables is undertaken in order to determine the range of allowed values for the solitonic pulse speed and how it varies as a function of the beam characteristics (beam velocity and density).