Isolation, structural, biological activity and application of Gleditsia species seeds galactomannans

Jiaqi Sang, Gang Zhao, Anastasios Koidis, Xiaoqun Wei, Weijuan Huang, Zonglin Guo, Shaozong Wu, Riming Huang*, Hongtao Lei*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Gleditsia fruits have been known as a valuable traditional Chinese herb for tens of centuries. Previous studies showed that the galactomannans are considered as one of the major bioactive components in Gleditsia fruits seeds (GSGs). Here, we systematically review the major studies of GSGs in recent years to promote their better understanding. The extraction methods of GSGs mainly include hot water extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasonic extraction, acid extraction, and alkali extraction. The analysis revealed that GGSs exhibited in the form of semi-flexible coils, and its molecular weight ranged from 0.018 × 103 to 2.778 × 103 KDa. GSGs are composed of various monosaccharide constituents such as mannose, galactose, glucose, and arabinose. In terms of pharmacological effects, GSGs exhibit excellent activity in antioxidation, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammation. Moreover, GSGs have excellent bioavailability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, which make them used in food additives, food packaging, pharmaceutical field, industry and agriculture. Of cause, the shortcomings of the current research and the potential development and future research are also highlighted. We believe our work provides comprehensive knowledge and underpinnings for further research and development of GSGs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number122019
JournalCarbohydrate Polymers
Early online date08 Mar 2024
Publication statusEarly online date - 08 Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024


  • Application
  • Biological activities
  • Extraction
  • Galactomannans
  • Gleditsia species
  • Structural features

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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