Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered an opportunistic pathogen, constituting an ongoing health concern for immunocompromised patients, the elderly, and neonates. Reports on the isolation of K. pneumoniae from other sources are increasing, many of which express multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Three phylogroups were identified based on nucleotide differences. Niche environments, including plants, animals, and humans appear to be colonized by different phylogroups, among which KpI (K. pneumoniae) is commonly associated with human infection. Infections with K. pneumoniae can be transmitted through contaminated food or water and can be associated with community-acquired infections or between persons and animals involved in hospital-acquired infections. Increasing reports are describing detections along the food chain, suggesting the possibility exists that this could be a hitherto unexplored reservoir for this opportunistic bacterial pathogen. Expression of MDR phenotypes elaborated by these bacteria is due to the nature of various plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance (AMR)-encoding genes, and is a challenge to animal, environmental, and human health alike. Raman spectroscopy has the potential to provide for the rapid identification and screening of antimicrobial susceptibility of Klebsiella isolates. Moreover, hypervirulent isolates linked with extraintestinal infections express phenotypes that may support their niche adaptation. In this review, the prevalence, reservoirs, AMR, Raman spectroscopy detection, and pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae are summarized and various extraintestinal infection pathways are further narrated to extend our understanding of its adaptation and survival ability in reservoirs, and associated disease risks.
- Food Science
- Animal Science and Zoology
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology