Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) enzymatically inactivates incretin hormones, and DPP-4 inhibitor drugs are clinically approved therapies for type 2 diabetes. The primary substrates of DPP-4 are produced in the intestinal lining and we therefore investigated whether lactobacilli colonizing the gut can inhibit this enzyme. Fifteen Lactobacillus strains (Lb 1-15) from human infant faecal samples were isolated, identified, extracted and screened for inhibitory activity against DPP-4. Activity was compared against Lactobacillus reference strains (Ref 1-7), a Gram positive control (Ctrl 1) and two Gram negative controls (Ctrl 2-3). A range of DPP-4 inhibitory activity was observed (10-32%; P<0.05-0.001). Strains of L. fabifermentans (25%), L. plantarum (12-24%) and L. fermentum (14%) had significant inhibitory activity. However, we also noted that E. coli (Ctrl 2) and S. Typhimurium (Ctrl 3) had the greatest inhibitory activity (30-32%). Contrastingly, some isolates (Lb 12-15) and reference cultures (Ref 1-4) instead of inhibiting DPP-4 actually enhanced it, perhaps indicating the presence of X-prolyl-dipeptidyl-amino-peptidase (PepX). This provides a future rationale for using probiotic bacteria or their components for management of type 2 diabetes via DPP-4 inhibition.