Larval Anatomy of Andean Toads of the Rhinella spinulosa Group (Anura: Bufonidae)

Florencia Vera Candioti*, Jimena Grosso, Martin Pereyra, M. Belén Haad, Julián Lescano, Karen Siu-Ting, César Aguilar, Diego Baldo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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The Rhinella spinulosa group is a clade of toads that inhabit the Andes mountains
from northern Ecuador to Patagonia. Its taxonomy was recently revised, and in its new
arrangement comprises nine species, including Rhinella gallardoi traditionally placed
in a different intrageneric group. In this work we studied the larval external and internal morphology in this group, by describing for the first time tadpoles of R. achalensis , R. gallardoi , and R. vellardi , and then summarizing morphological data for R. altiperuviana , R. limensis , R. papillosa , R. spinulosa , and R. trifolium .
Although we found no diagnostic larval features for the whole clade, two distinct morphs were identified. Most tadpoles were highly pigmented and slender, and their
oral discs showed a long gap in the second labial tooth row; conversely, tadpoles of R.
limensis and R. vellardi shared a globose body and a very short gap. Buccal and musculoskeletal features were highly conserved within the group and regarding other
Rhinella , and included four lingual papillae, non-keratinized spurs, tripartite
suprarostral cartilages, quadratoorbital commissure, and in musculature, m. subarcualis rectus II–IV invading the branchial septum III and laryngeal muscles
reduced or absent.
Original languageEnglish
JournalHerpetological Monographs
Early online date31 Jul 2020
Publication statusEarly online date - 31 Jul 2020


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