Laser-engineered dissolving microneedles for active transdermal delivery of nadroparin calcium

Y.A. Gomaa, M.J. Garland, Fiona McInnes, L.K. El-Khordagui, Clive Wilson, R.F. Donnelly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)
323 Downloads (Pure)


There is an urgent need to replace the injection currently used for low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) multidose therapy with a non- or minimally invasive delivery approach. In this study, laser-engineered dissolving microneedle (DMN) arrays fabricated from aqueous blends of 15% w/w poly(methylvinylether-co-maleic anhydride) were used for the first time in active transdermal delivery of the LMWH nadroparin calcium (NC). Importantly, an array loading of 630 IU of NC was achieved without compromising the array mechanical strength or drug bioactivity. Application of NC-DMNs to dermatomed human skin (DHS) using the single-step 'poke and release' approach allowed permeation of approximately 10.6% of the total NC load over a 48-h study period. The cumulative amount of NC that permeated DHS at 24 h and 48 h attained 12.28 ± 4.23 IU/cm and 164.84 ± 8.47 IU/cm , respectively. Skin permeation of NC could be modulated by controlling the DMN array variables, such as MN length and array density as well as application force to meet various clinical requirements including adjustment for body mass and renal function. NC-loaded DMN offers great potential as a relatively low-cost functional delivery system for enhanced transdermal delivery of LMWH and other macromolecules.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)299-307
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 01 Oct 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Biotechnology


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