Leadership development outcomes research and the need for a time-sensitive approach

Paul Joseph-Richard*, Gareth Edwards, Shirley Ann Hazlett

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Many leadership development studies consider developing leadership as a dynamic process that takes time. However, few evaluative inquiries examine the effects of time on leadership development outcomes. As the concept of time has begun to receive the attention it deserves in leadership research, we present a case for including temporal dimensions in leadership development outcomes research. We review conceptual evaluation frameworks and published empirical evaluations in order to highlight the fact that scholars have paid scant attention to time-related considerations in programme evaluation. By using a goal-free evaluation of healthcare leadership development programme as a case example, we illustrate six types of outcomes such as a symbol, rejuvenation, discovery, change, engagement and transformation and reveal their different temporal dimensions. Based on the findings, we argue that, for evaluations to be rigorous and more meaningful to key stakeholders, adopting a time-sensitive approach may be critical.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-199
JournalHuman Resource Development International
Issue number2
Early online date08 Sept 2020
Publication statusPublished - 01 Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Evaluating leadership development
  • evaluation frameworks
  • goal-free evaluation
  • temporal dimensions
  • time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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