Lifestyle factors and small intestine adenocarcinoma risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Caoimhe M. Bennett, Helen G. Coleman, Philip G. Veal, Marie M. Cantwell, Charlotte C. L. Lau, Liam J. Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
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Background: Although the incidence of small intestinal adenocarcinoma (SIA) is low, rates are increasing and little information regarding modifiable lifestyle risk factors is available.

Aim: To provide a systematic review of lifestyle factors and SIA risk.

Methods: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and WEB OF SCIENCE were searched from inception to Week 1 October 2013. Nine publications that reported on SIA risk in relation to alcohol intake (n=6), tobacco smoking (n=6), diet (n=5), body mass (n=3), physical activity (n=1), hormone use (n=1) and/or socio-economic status (n=3) were retrieved. Results for alcohol, smoking and SIA risk were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses to produce relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: The summary RR for individuals consuming the highest versus lowest category of alcohol intake was 1.51 (95% CI 0.83-2.75; n=5 studies) with significant increased risks emerging in sensitivity analysis with reduced heterogeneity (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.05-3.15; n=4 studies). The pooled SIA RR for individuals in the highest versus lowest category of smoking was 1.24 (95% CI 0.71-2.17; n=5 studies). In relation to dietary factors, high fibre intakes and normal body weight may be protective, while high intakes of red/processed meat and sugary drinks may increase SIA risk. Evidence on socio-economic status and SIA risk was equivocal. Data on other factors were too sparse to draw any conclusions.

Conclusions: Alcohol may be associated with an increased risk of SIA. Further investigation of lifestyle factors, particularly alcohol, smoking and diet, in the aetiology of this cancer is warranted in large consortial studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)265-273
Number of pages9
JournalCancer Epidemiology
Issue number3
Early online date27 Feb 2015
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015


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