Light can be used in conjunction with a number of light-sensitive compounds to confer anti-infective properties to medical device surfaces. These properties can be tailored according to requirements due to the ease with which light can be controlled in terms of wavelength and dose. Three main groups of compounds are currently used or being studied for applications in the field of medical devices: photosensitizers, photocatalysts, and photocleavables. Whilst many compounds within each group have previously found use in various aspects of medical or antimicrobial treatment, their exploitation in the field of anti-infective medical device surfaces is more recent. This chapter describes each group including the differing mechanism of action of each, highlighting relevant research, and focusing particularly on their use within medical device materials and recent clinical use.