The effects of polyunsaturated n-6 linoleic acid on monocyte-endothelial interactions were investigated with particular emphasis on the expression of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 and the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). As a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids may favour atherosclerosis in hyperglycaemia, this study was performed in both normal and high-glucose media using human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). The HAEC were preincubated with normal (5 mM) or high (25 mM) d-glucose for 3 days before addition of fatty acids (0.2 mM) for 3 days. Linoleic acid enhanced PECAM-1 expression independently of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and significantly increased TNF-a-induced monocyte adhesion to HAEC in comparison to the monounsaturated n-9 oleic acid. Chronic glucose treatment (25 mM, 6 days) did not modify the TNF-a-induced or fatty acid-induced changes in monocyte binding. The increase in monocyte binding was accompanied by a significant increase in E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression and could be abrogated by an interleukin (IL)-8 neutralising antibody and by the PKC and COX inhibitors. Inhibition of PKC-d reduced VCAM-1 expression regardless of experimental condition and was accompanied by a significant decrease in monocyte binding. Conditioned medium from linoleic acid-treated HAEC grown in normal glucose conditions significantly increased THP-1 chemotaxis. These results suggest that linoleic acid-induced changes in monocyte chemotaxis and subsequent binding are not solely mediated by changes in adhesion molecule expression but may be due to secreted factors such as IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 or prostaglandins (PGs) such as PGE2, as IL-8 neutralisation and COX-2 inhibition reduced monocyte binding without changes in adhesion molecule expression.
Matesanz, N., Jewhurst, V., Trimble, E., McGinty, A., Owens, D., Tomkin, G. H., & Powell, L. (2012). Linoleic acid increases monocyte chemotaxis and adhesion to human aortic endothelial cells through protein kinase C- and cyclooxygenase-2-dependent mechanisms. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 23(6), 685-690. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.03.020