Living Well with Pain: Development and Preliminary Evaluation of the Valued Living Scale

Mark P. Jensen*, Kevin E. Vowles, Linea E. Johnson, Kevin J. Gertz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)
58 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Objectives: Encouraging individuals with chronic pain to focus on nonpain-related goals that are consistent with personal values is a goal of most psychosocial pain interventions. A valid and reliable measure of goal-related variables would be useful to evaluate the importance of these to patient quality of life and as factors that may explain treatment outcome.
Design: We developed items for a measure (the Valued Living Scale, VLS) to assess goal importance, success, and confidence with respect to eight value domains and 26 specific values-related goals, and administered these items to individuals with three chronic pain conditions (low back pain, N=58; fibromyalgia, N=55; headache, N=61). Results: Analyses supported: 1) a two-factor model of the VLS items assessing goal-related variables associated with a) health and productivity and b) social relations; 2) VLS scale score reliability, with Cronbach's alphas greater than 0.70; and 3) VLS scale score validity, as indicated by significant associations with pain intensity, depression, and pain interference in the expected directions. Conclusions: The VLS items can be administered and scored to assess: 1) the importance of as well as 2) confidence in and 3) success in achieving values-consistent goals. The measure can be used by clinicians to monitor and track changes in patient's perceptions about their goals with treatment. Researchers can use the VLS to test theoretical models of the roles that patient perceptions about goal importance, confidence, and success play in chronic pain treatment outcome. Summary: This study described the development and preliminary validation of a measure that assesses: 1) the importance of as well as 2) confidence in and 3) success in achieving valued life goals. The measure may be used to monitor and track changes in patient perceptions of their goals during treatment, and researchers may use the measure to test the role that patient perceptions about goal importance, confidence, and success play in chronic pain treatment outcome.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2109-2120
Number of pages12
JournalPain Medicine (United States)
Volume16
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Nov 2015

Keywords

  • Assessment
  • Chronic pain
  • Psychology
  • Self-efficacy
  • Values

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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